Class Notes (839,006)
Canada (511,179)
BIOL 1410 (94)
Lecture

Cardiovascular System
Premium

6 Pages
141 Views
Unlock Document

Department
Biological Sciences
Course
BIOL 1410
Professor
Jennifer Mcleese
Semester
Summer

Description
Cardiovascular System May-13-13 11:10 AM  Heart, blood vessels, blood  Transport: gases, nutrients, hormones, wastes, heat  Protection: disease, fluid loss (clotting) Heart  In cavity called mediastinum (in thoracic cavity between lungs) Coverings = Pericardium is double walled sac surrounding heart 3 Layers: 1. Fibrous Pericardium o Outer is dense irregular CT 2. Serous Pericardium o 2 parts o Parietal Pericardium: Fused to fibrous pericardium (layers 1 and 2a = pericardial sac) o Visceral Pericardium/Epicardium: Fused to heart surface (part of heart wall)  Between pericardial layers is pericardial cavity with serous fluid (lubricates) 3. Heart Wall has 3 parts a. Epicardium (Stratified Squamous Epithelium and CT) b. Myocardium (Cardiac Muscle) arranged in spiral/circular pattern reinforced with CT c. Endocardium : Simple sq. epith and CT, epithelium/endothelium lines inner surface of heart + blood vessels) Chambers + Associated Blood Vessels 1. Right Atrium  Inferior and superior vena cava  Coronary sinus 2. Left Atrium  4 pulmonary veins 3. Right Ventricle  Pulmonary trunk  Divides to form 2 pulmonary arteries 4. Left Ventricle  Aorta Septa (separate chambers) 1. Interatrial Septum  Separates atria 2. Interventricular septum  Separates ventricles  Deep to interventricular sulcus (external) Fibrous Skeleton  CT fibers around muscle fibers + CT rings between atria and ventricles at the coronary sulcus  Allows openings to remain open at all times (valves open and close)  Provide electrical insulation preventing simultaneous contraction of chambers Valves 1. Atrioventricular (AV valves) a. Bicuspid/Mitral Valve  Left side - 2 cusps b. Tricuspid  Right side - 3 cusps Chordae Tendinaeae: Attach cusps to papillary muscles (cardiac muscle), prevents eversion of cusps 2. Semilunar Valves: 3 cusps each a. Aortic: Between left ventricle and aorta b. Pulmonary: Between right ventricle and pulmonary trunk Cardiac Muscle Cells  Form both contractile myocardium + conduction system Similarities to skeletal muscle: 1. Striated (myofibrils with sarcomeres) 2. Has sarcoplasmic reticulum Differences: 1. Branched (myofibrils with sarcomeres) 2. Uninucleated 3. Intercalated Discs: Region where 2 fibers meet, contain anchoring and gap junctions Conduction System  Cardiac muscle cells modified to produce and conduct electrical impulses (DO NOT CONTRACT) Parts: 1. Sinoatrial (SA) Node: o In right atrium at base of superior vena cava o Generates impulses the fastest- setting pace 2. Atrioventricular (AV) Node: o Base of right atrium 3. Bundle of His  Superior part of interventricular septum  Electrically connects atria to ventricles 4. Bundle of His Branches  Go to each ventricle 5. Purkinje Fibers  Terminal fibers in ventricles only ***ELECTRICAL SIGNAL SPREADS TO CONTRACTILE CARDIAC CELLS THEN THEY CONTRACT*** Circulatory Routes  Closed, double circulation (closed: Blood confined to heart + blood vessels, Double=2 routes pulmonary+systemic) A.Adult Circulation 1. Pulmonary Circulation  Right ventricle to lungs via pulmonary arteries (deoxy blood)  Pick up oxygen in lungs via capillaries  Lungs to left atria via pulmonary veins (oxygenated blood) 2. Systemic Circulation  Left ventricle to organs via aorta (oxygenated)  Organs remove oxygen via capillaries  Organs to right atrium via superior and inferior vena cava (deoxy) Systemic Circulatory Subdivisions: Overall route: left ventricle to right atrium = systemic circulatory Subroutes: Cerebral - brain Hepatic: Liver Coronary: Heart Coronary Circulation (Visible externally)  Left ventricle aorta to right coronary artery, then posterior interventricular artery/marginal artery  Could also go to left coronary artery, then anterior interventricular artery/circumflex artery  All lead to arterioles, capillaries in myocardium, venules, cardiac veins, coronary sinus (blood vessel), right atrium B. Fetal Circulation 
More Less

Related notes for BIOL 1410

Log In


OR

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit