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BIOL 1410 (94)

Respiratory System

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University of Manitoba
Biological Sciences
BIOL 1410
Jennifer Mcleese

Respiratory System May-15-13 10:51 AM Upper Respiratory System  Nose, nasal cavity, pharynx 1. Nose o Bone + Hyaline cartilage o Covered by skin and muscle o Nostrils/external nares 2. Nasal Cavity o Nasal septum divides o Anterior is hyaline cartilage o Posterior is Vomer, Ethmoid, palatine, maxillae o Vestibule/Anterior Area  Surrounded by cartilage  Lined by skin with coarse hairs o Respiratory Area  Lined by mucous membranes (epithelium + CT)  Epithelium is ciliated pseudostratified columnar with goblet cells  Mucous glands in CT layer protect  Divided into meatuses/passages by conchae (superior and middle are part of ethmoid bone)  Inferior nasal conchae = separate bone  Lacrimal ducts open into nasal cavity inferior to inferior nasal conchae c. Olfactory Area  In roof of cavity  Pseudostratified columnar epithelium without goblet cells  Neurons have olfactory receptors Function of Nasal cavity: 1. Warm, moisten, and filter 2. Olfaction/smell 3. Speech/ resonance chamber 3. Paranasal Sinuses o In frontal, sphenoid, ethmoid, and maxillary bones o Lined with ciliated, pseudostratified columnar epithelium o Open into nasal cavity Function: Warm, moisten air, lighten skull  Sinusitis:  Inflammation of mucous membranes 4. Pharynx o Throat o Wall of skeletal muscle lined by mucous membrane o Nasopharynx  For respiration only  Posterior to nasal cavity  Openings into nasopharynx  2 internal nares  2 Eustachian tubes (pharyngotympanic tubes) Pharyngeal Tonsil  Not paired = adenoids  On post. wall of nasopharynx  Mucosa ciliated and pseudostratified b. Oropharynx  Passage of air + food  Post. to oral cavity  From soft palate to epiglottis  Contains paired tonsils (palatine, lingual)  Mucosa: Stratified squamous (abrasion) c. Laryngopharynx  Passage for air + food  Epiglottis to opening of larynx  Mucosa: Stratified Squamous Epithelium Lower Respiratory System  Larynx, trachea, bronchial tree, lungs 1. Larynx  Mostly hyaline cartilage  Connects pharynx to trachea  Trachea is for respiration only  Unpaired cartilages a. Thyroid/Adam's apple: on anterior wall, hyaline cartilage b. Epiglottis: Covers glottis during swallowing, elastic cartilage c. Cricoid Cartilage: Ring of hyaline cartilage i. Paired cartilages: All 3 hyaline cartilage, Arytenoid muscle attaches vocal cords d. Vocal Cords:  False vocal cord (superior fold of mucous membrane, helps hold breath against thoracic pressure)  True: (inferior fold of mucous membrane, make sound by vibration)  Glottis: True vocal cords + opening, prevents food/liquid entering trachea Laryngitis: Inflammation of larynx due to infection/irritation 2. Trachea  From larynx to primary bronchi  Anterior to esophagus  20 c shaped pieces of hyaline cart.  Open part of faces esophagus allowing expansion of esophagus  Mucosa: Ciliated pseudostrat. Columnar with goblet cells 3. Bronchial Tree Primary bronchi (ciliated pseudostrat. Col. Epith.) --> alveolar ducts (non ciliated simple squamous)  2 primary bronchi each going to a lung, have incomplete hyaline cart. Rings  Divide into 5 secondary bronchi (plates o
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