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BIOL1412 02 03 2014.docx

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University of Manitoba
Biological Sciences
BIOL 1412
Paul Messing

BIOL1412 02 03 2014 Stress - triggers set of body changes called GeneralAdaptation Syndrome - all co-ordinated directly or indirectly by the hypothal. phases: 1) Phase 1:Alarm Rx (Fight or Flight Response) - immediate = NS CNS (sensory input - detect change) ⇓ Hypothal. (RAS ∴ ⇑ alertness) ⇓ SNS ⇙ ⇘ Organs Adrenal Medulla (discussed previously) ⇓ E + NE (prolongs fight/flight response) effects of SNS + endocrine: a) ⇑ blood glucose: - SNS inhibits insulin release - E, NE converts glycogen to glucose (in liver) b) ⇑ HR, force of contraction c) ⇑ respiratory rate d) ⇓ blood flow to skin + abdominal viscera - ∴ more available for skel. + card. muscle, + brain (O2 + glucose to working organs) e) ⇓ digestion, urine production 2) Phase 2: Resistance Rx - long term ⇒ endocrine - permits recovery from the effects of 1) (tissue repair, etc.) or response to longer term stress (eg. starvation) - hypothalamic hormones initiate 2): Hypothalamus growth hormone ⇓ ⇓ corticotropin releasing releasing hormone ⇓ ⇓ hormone (CRH) (GHRH) ⇓ ⇓ Anterior Pituitary ⇙ ⇘ adrenocorticotropic hormone growth hormone (GH) ⇘ (ACTH) Adrenal Cortex ⇓ cortisol (glucocorticoid) GH a) stim.s growth (protein production), cell reproduction Cortisol a) released in 30 sec of a stress but response not for hours - steroid hormone - acts on nuclear receptors b) inhibits insulin release Release of hormones causes: a) ⇑ blood glucose: ⇒ liver stim. to produce new glucose from fats and later for proteins ⇒ little insulin (because of inhibition) - glucose not taken up will, esp. by skel. musc. (at rest) + adipose tissue ∴ : i) glucose spared for use by NS
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