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BIOL1412 02 10 2014.docx

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University of Manitoba
Biological Sciences
BIOL 1412
Paul Messing

BIOL1412 02 10 2014 Midterm ~ Room 111Armes 5 questions each on Laboratory 2 & 3 Skeletal System Functions: 1) Support 2) Protection of vital organs 3) Attaches musc. + allows movement 4) Red marrow produces RBC, WBC 5) Stores Ca+2 (for eg. musc. nerve fun' Bone Ossification - Bone formation begins at 8th week ⇒ 20 years 1) Intramembranous Ossification - Flat bones eg. some skull bones, mandible, clavicle - develop from fibrous CT membrane (Fig. 6.9) - osteoblasts produce spongy bone along fibres - periosteum forms + osteoblasts beneath it lay down compact bone Fontanels = unossified membranes in the skull that remain at birth (Fig. 6.17) 2) Endochondrial Ossification - most bones develop from a hyaline cartilage model (cartilage laid down in rough shape of bone-to-be) - cart. ossifies to become spongy bone - periosteum forms + osteoblasts beneath it lay down compact bone - articulate cartilage + epiphyseal plates = cart. that has not ossified Bone Growth (Post Natal) 1) Growth in Length ( = endochondrial growth) - at epiphyseal plates (Fig. 6.11) (Fig. 6.10) - cartilage grows + matrix near diaphysis becomes bone - growth in length stops when epiphyseal plate ossifies into epiphyseal line (closure) 2) Growth in Diameter ( = appositional growth) - due to activity of osteoblasts beneath periosteum of long bones - osteoclasts beneath medullary endosteum - resorb bone ∴ size of cavity keeps pace w/ growing bone FactorsAffecting Bone Growth + Remodelling 1) Mechanical Stress - moderate exercise ⇒ ⇑ osteoblast activity in areas of stress (more building than breakdown) - injury that restricts movement ⇓ osteoblast activity + no chang
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