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BIOL1412 02 07 2014.docx

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University of Manitoba
Biological Sciences
BIOL 1412
Paul Messing

BIOL1412 02 07 2014 Topic 5: Cell Physiology IV Cell - living building blocks of body (Fig. 3.2) (Fig. 3.1) - chem. processes in body (performed by cells) = metabolism anabolism - building mol.s catabolism - breakdown of mol.s Basic Cell Processes 1) Protein Synthesis - enzymes, etc. a) DNATranscription - DNA⇒ mRNA (messenger RNA) (Fig. 3.37) - steps: i) DNAuncoils at site of gene to expose gene base sequence ii) RNAstrand is formed using code on DNAtemplate to add complimentary RNAmol.s eg. DNAtemplateA-T-C-G-C-A mRNA U-A-G-C-G-U b) DNATranslation - mRNA⇒ proteins - steps: i) mRNA associates w/ ribosomes ⇒ 3 bases on mRNA= base triplet = a codon eg. CUU,ACG, etc. ⇒ each codon codes for 1 amino acid (aa's can have more than one codon) (Fig. 3.39) ii) transfer RNA(tRNA) w/ specific aa and anticodon (comp. bases to codon) binds to matching RNA iii) peptide bind is formed to attach aa to growing peptide chain (Fig. 3.37) - so overall: sequence of DNAbases determine mRNAsequences ⇒ determines aa sequence for protein c) After Translation - proteins produced on free ribosomes - released into cytosol or go to nucleus + mito. - proteins produced by ribosomes on ER (RER) - released into ER lumen ⇒ modified by addition of sugars (glycoprotein) (Fig. 3.2) ⇒ transferred to Golgi complex in vesicles (Fig. 3.19) i) further modified by card changes/additions (act as address to send them to right destination: (Fig. 3.20) cell membrane, secretion, lysosomes) ⇒ Lysosomes: ⇒ membrane-bound organelles containing digestive enzymes (acid env't) Enzymes (names end in "ase") - ⇑ Rx rates -
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