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Lecture 2c

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PSYC 1200
Jason Leboe- Mcgowan

Lecture 2c Linking Brain Structure to Function 1. Patient Data  Phineas Gage discovered damage to frontal lobe affects emotion and decision making Disorders: Visual Agnosia - Recognizing something but not the name for it Prosopagnosia - Can't recognize facial features Left Hemisphere - Damage affects language abilities Frontal Lobe - Affects emotion and decision making Hippocampus - Memory 2. Lesion Studies  Cause damage to region of animals brain  If damage causes impairment in some function that part of the brain is important for that function Electroencephalogram (EEG)  Active neurons produce an electric current that can be measured with surface electrodes attached to scalp  Make people do a task then measure what part of brain is active  Active parts are important for that function Problems with EEG:  Only gives rough idea of brain areas involved in mental task Needle electrodes - pushed inside brain, more precise than EEG, records activity of small area Micro electrodes - Record activity of a single neuron, more precise Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS)  Sends large electric current over head  Causes strong magnetic field  Temporarily inactivate neurons in certain area in brain  Whichever brain area inactivated may be important for functions impaired by magnetic field Positron-Emission Tomography (PET Scan)  Measures glucose/sugar consumption by neurons in brain  More glucose means more neuron activity  Radioactive element is attached to glucose  An area using more glucose when performing task must be important in that task  Red areas are most active Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)  Strong magnetic fields cause vibrations that are picked up by sensors  High resolution  Provides info about density of certain areas  Provides info about structures and metabolism ex. Blood flow ***Areas that are most active while someone performs a function are important for that function***  Healthy brain acts as a unit  If a mental function is complex it involves more than 1 area Lecture 2c Brain Structures and Functions Primary Motor Cortex - Controls muscles and body movement Primary somatosensory Cortex - Giving you sense of touch Visual Cortex - Vision info gets sent to temporal lobe Brain Stem - Base of skull/top of spinal cord Medulla - Heart rate and breathing Pons - Sleeping, waking and dreaming Reticular Activating System (RAS)  Deep in brain stem  Base of front of brain  Waking  Screens incoming information Cerebellum  Above brain stem
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