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Lecture 1

PSYC 2440 Lecture Notes - Lecture 1: Applied Behavior Analysis, Cognitive Behavioral Therapy, Classical ConditioningPremium


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC 2440
Professor
All
Lecture
1

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PSYCH 2440 – Behavior Modification Principles – Lecture 1 - Chapter 1
Chapter 1
What is Behavior?
Behavior
- Anything that a person says or does
- Behavior is any muscular, glandular, or electrical activity that a person says or does
Products of behavior
- Anything that results from behavior
- E.g. getting an A in a course because you studied hard and effectively
- E.g. losing ten pounds due to resisting overeating and exercising more
Overt behavior
- Behaviors that can be observed and recorded by an individual other than the one performing
the behavior
Covert behavior
- Private or internal activities that cannot be readily observed by others
- Do NOT typically refer to behaviors done in private, nor do they refer to secretive actions
- More commonly referred to as behaviors that occur “within one’s skin”
- Thinking and feeling
Cognitive behaviors (covert behavior)
-Private self-talk
oWe think in words
oE.g. a figure skater thinking to herself, “I hope I don’t fall,” before she goes on the ice
oAt other times, we think by imagining
- Both private self-talk and imagination are covert behaviors as well as cognitive behaviors
Dimensions of behavior
- Measurable characteristics of behavior
1. Duration of behavior
oHow long the behavior lasts
oE.g. Mary studied for one hour
2. Frequency of behavior
oNumber of instances that occur in a given period of time
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oE.g. Frank planted 5 tomato plants in his garden for 30 minutes.
3. Intensity or Force of a behavior
oRefers to the physical effort or energy involved in emitting the behavior
oE.g. Mary has a strong grip when shaking hands
Summary Labels for Behavior
- Terms such as honest, carefree, hardworking, unreliable, independent, selfish, etc.
oThese are summary labels for human actions, but they do not refer to specific
behaviors
oFor example, when you refer to a man as nervous, people will generally know what you
mean. But they will not know if you are referring to his tendency to bite his nails, or his
constant fidgeting.
- Many terms used by psychologists, such as intelligence, attitude, and creativity are also
summary labels.
oIntelligent
Generally, people think intelligence is inherited; an innate capacity for learning.
But we NEVER OBSERVE NOR MEASURE any such thing!
On an intelligence test, we merely measure the behavior people’s answers to
questions – as they take the test
Rather, the word ‘intelligent’ should be used to describe how people behave
under certain conditions
E.g. she is an intelligent speaker
E.g. she writes intelligently
It is better to use the word ‘intelligence’ as an adjective or an adverb, BUT NOT
A NOUN
oAttitude
Also a behavior
E.g. “a bad attitude towards school” only describes a person’s behavior in
school
oCreativity
Also refers to the kinds of behavior a person is likely to engage in under certain
circumstances
A creative person usually emits behavior that is novel or unique that at the same
time have desirable effects
- Why use summary labels at all?
oUseful for providing general info about how an individual might perform
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