PSYC 3530 Lecture Notes - Toilet Training, Anal Stage, Oral Stage

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The concept ‘mojo’ (modern translation of a Freudian concept of libido) refers to life energy, a concept
popularized by Jim Morrison in the 1950s, then later seen in Austin powers
Three major forces in the 20th century, three major perspectives/movements of the human behaviour
including psychoanalysis, behaviourism and its modern variation, and humanism
Psychoanalysis originates from Sigmund Freud, very dark view of the human condition, he saw people as
fundamentally unhappy and incapable of happiness, dark animals caged by civilization, general state of
We have multiple motivations of what and how we act, and we are completely unaware of what motivates
us, there are outside of our awareness for good reason
Dark view that humans are determined by motives that are determined to control and govern our behaviour
Freud had multiple theories and hypotheses about human behaviour, and development, human mind
structural model and the layers of human experience (conscious to unconscious)
He was trained as a neurologist and opened a private neurology practise and began to see a variety of
People who weren’t pregnant said they were, people who said they ere blind, who really weren’t, people
who said they were sick, who weren’t sick, something psychological about their ‘symptoms’
Freud began to ask patients to talk about what happened in their lives, and earlier in their lives in their
childhood, and what he found was that there
He hypothesized that there are occasions where people experience psychological conflicts that are hidden
from awareness and emerge as physical symptoms, and the proper way to treat these problems was
through talking to the patients, not by medications
He introduced the ‘talking cure’ which we know today as psychotherapy
This was a prolific guy, he wrote extraordinary amount, generates hypotheses as he saw patients, and
developed multiple writings into 23 volumes of writing and thinking constituting the most ambitious
attempt to account for human behaviour, maps of the mind
Freud is known for two things, sex and aggression
Freud was deeply influenced by Darwin, much of human behaviour was driven by instinct
He postulated there were two kinds of instincts, one set that was based on preservation and surviving and
the second set concerning reproduction
He later tied these two instincts together into a single concept called ‘libido’
Libido is connected to sexuality, but not only about sexuality, but its any life sustaining urge or impulse
His idea around sexuality and libido was far broader than sexual pleasure, but anything that is life
sustaining, satisfying, or pleasure oriented urge, force of all energy in the mind
He relabelled the libido as Eros in the end to prevent an alternate motivation which he came to recognize
later in his career concerning motivations to aggress and to harm, an innate impulse to destroy things,
called fanatos, any urge to destroy or harm or aggress against others or one self
This second motivation emerged much later, so much of his thinking was about libido, energy that fuels
the system
Whats important of how people develop and personality develops, the libido has a process, pre-ordained, it
emerges then migrates throughout the body, it is organized within various parts of the body called
erogenous zones, areas of the body that become associated with pleasure (stage model)
Each stage describes an organization for the libido
The first of these stages is the oral stage, in the first month of life, the libido is organized around the mouth
and the lips, its pleasurable to eat and ingest food, nutrition, the little baby enjoys being fed, o
proxies/substitutes to being fed like thumb sucking
Primary concern infants work through about dependency and ability to trust caregivers
The structural component of personality develops called the id
Acquisition of nutrition becomes more proactive as the infant becomes a toddler, and more concerned
about autonomy an mastery instead of dependency and trust
The anal stage is the next one which is between 1 and 3 and this stage toilet training begins, and there is a
battle of who has control about baby’s bowel movements, the toddler or the mom
The toddler realizes that it feels good to retain and release bowel, and when you do this the right way and
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