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Lecture 10

AGRC 112 Lecture 10: Ag 112 Cereal grains

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University of Saskatchewan
AGRC 112
Takaya Kunio

Cereal grains - Wheat - Important for saskatchewan, mainly produce the wheat that is used to cook bread ( hard wheat ) - Gluten is a protein in wheat - Triticale cross between wheat and rye - Barley - Barley and rye are very close - Rye - Corn - One of the most important crops grown in the world - Rice - Very important for asian countries, which are the major producers of rice - Oats - Has a lot of gluten in it -Sorghum Millet Oilseeds - Canola - Most important crop for production of oils - Soybean - Oil palm - Coconut palm - Sunflower - Flaxseed ( linseed ) - Olive - Peanut ( groundnut ) - Cottonseed - In some areas it is a major source of oil - Coco bean Cereal grains - Directly and indirectly supply approximately 70% of the calories and 75% of the protein in human diet - Contribution of wheat to the Canadian economy was $11 billion Production of cereal grains - The top crop is corn - Rice is rates as 2 and wheat is 3, although the change depending on the year - Pulses, they are not in the table, they are used in nutrition Structure and composition of cereals - Kernels of cereal grains are fruits - The fruit is a dry, non-dehiscent, single seeded caryopsis - The dehydrated fruit structure remain firmly attached to the mature seed Structure and composition of cereals - The principle anatomical structures of the carapaces are: -Pericarp ) fruit coat) -Testa ( seed coat )
 -Endosperm ( aleurone + starchy endosperm ) - Embryo - Some cereals are hulled, those that are more are termed naked - The principle constitutes of cereal grains are: - Starch ( 65-70%) - Protein (10-15%) - Fibre (10-30%) - Lipid (2-10%) - Minerals (2-4%) - Considerable variation in composition due to genetics, environment, agronomic practices Utilization of cereals - The unique structural and compositional features of wheat, corn, rice, etc, dictate the particular processes applied and the major end used in each case - Dry milling - To separate fruit structures from seed ( anatomical ) - Improved palatability, digestibility, and functionality - Roller or abrasion milling - to remove the seed coat - Wet milling - Separate constituents - The seed is soaked in water so you can crack the coat and get out the oil - Special used - Malting, brewing, distilled beverages and alcohol, oat milling, brewer’s grain - The seed coat and kernel if used for meal Wheat - Although we don't consume a large amount of the wheat we have one of the largest exporters - Origin - Middle East - Most important com
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