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Phil 224 - Sept 19th 2012.doc

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PHIL 224
George Williamson

Pthl 224 September 19 2012 1 House Keeping: You can make Tags on the discussion board Kant’s Second Formulation of the Categorical Imperative: Principle of the End-in- Itself* “Act so as to treat humanity, either yourself or another person, never merely as a means but always as an end.” a) Never treat as a mere means: Duties of Justice NOT just as a means – we do this all the time Mere means = to ignore, override or undermine a person’s autonomy* − Mere means: when you deceive or coerce [slavery] an individual − if you pay them it alleviates that problem − if you pay a decent wage − if not you are using them up, the become a mere means − “The Yes Man” − there is a problem about when we decided if a wage is a living wage or a wage to live a happy/full life - treat person as merely useful -- a functional thing Two major ways to ‘use as mere means’: deception or coercion b) Always treat as an end: Duties of Beneficence Treat as end = to respect a person’s autonomy Presupposes not interfering with choices, imposing values, treating as mere means But also, foster the ability to be autonomous; educate, relieve conditions that would undermine autonomy And share in the ends or values of others − If we're valuing ethics, people who have the ability to recognize values, it would make no sense for us to not care about conditions under which we can see rational age
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