PHSI 208 Lecture Notes - Liposuction, Playgirl, Eating Disorder

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25 Jan 2013

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Socio-cultural variables
Playboy magazine centrefolds became thinner between 1959 and 1978
Although one study found that the trend toward portrayals of increasing thinness was
levelling off an analysis of playboy centrefolds were becoming even thinner. This study
showed that models shown on the internet have unhealthy levels of thinness
The findings for female body size showed increasing thinness in keeping with unrealistic
cultural pressures; in contrast the body size of the male Playgirl models had grown due to
increases in muscularity and the body sizes of typical males had also grown but cuz of
increases in body fat
Females still feel more pressure than males
Barbie look- increase bust by 12 inches, reduce waits by 10 and grow to over 7 feet in height
5 and 6 year olds exposed to Barbie images suffered lower body esteem and greater desire to
achieve the thin ideal
confirmed that women who are portrayed as eating heavily are indeed seen as more masculine
and less feminine than women who are portrayed ad eating light meals
the scarlet O’Hara effect refers to this phenomenon of eating lightly to project femininity
In gone with the wind mammy admonishes scarlet to eat a meal prior to going to a barbeque
so that she would appear dainty by eating very little
Prevalence of obesity has doubled since 1990; currently 20-30% of north Americans are
overweight, perhaps cuz of an abundance of food and a sedentary lifestyle
Increasing prevalence of obesity to an evolutionary tendency for humans to eat to excess to
store energy in their bodies for a time when food may be less plentiful
Found that weight dissatisfaction was associated negatively with age among women (younger
women were more dissatisfies with their weight) but this association was not evident among
This study also found that women were more likely than men to wish they weighed less and
were actually doing something to try and lose weight; this tendency was found regardless of
whether their actual weight was in the acceptable range as prescribed by body mass index
Women place greater importance on appearance than men do and that this diff exots across
the lifespan and can even be detected among the elderly
There are diff among females and males in the extent of their internalization and acceptance
of prescribed body image standards
Standards as a key component of risk for eating disorder and related dysfunctional behaviours
31% of Canadian young women from grades 6-10 thought that they were too fat. The
proportion increased with age and by grade 10, 44 % indicated that they were too fat
dieters increased from 7% of men and 14% of women in 1950 to 29% of men and 44% of
women in 1999.
A new study in southern Ontario found that in more than 2,000 girls aged 10 to 14, 29.3%
were dieting and 1 in 10 had maladaptive eating attitudes suggesting the presence of an eating
By grades 9 and 10 more than 25% of young women in Canada were on a diet when the
survey was conducted
The diet industry is valued at more than 50$ billion per year.
Also liposuction (vacuuming out fat deposits just under the skin) is a very common.
There are some indications that this preoccupation with being thin moderated somewhat at
least in the 1980s
Found that the # if articles on dieting increased steadult during the period when centrefolds
were becoming thinner
Analyzed the content of three women’s magazines to 1991 and found the # of articles on
weight lose has decreased in cosmopolitan and Ms. Over this period
Shifted from the degree of content to an analysis of the relative impact of various media
Found that increases in eating disorder symptoms were associated with increased exposure to
fashion magazines and these increases were not associated with amount of television viewed
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