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Lecture

Chapter 7: Psychodynamic and Humanistic Psychotherapies

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSY 257
Professor
Donna Darbellay
Semester
Fall

Description
Chapter 7: Psychodynamic and Humanistic Psychotherapies October-30-12 8:55 PM 1. Psychological Models in Clinical Psychology  A model is a prototype or pattern A psychological model is one that typifies the human psyche—the “personality” Different models are based on different theories place different emphasis on different aspects of the psyche  All models have some truth Facilitate understanding the human person Stimulate research, debate, critical thinking Open doors to develop/modify treatment technique 2. Psychological models All models need refinement Cultural bias/ era bound Personal history bias influence not necessarily wrong Era – reflects immaturity of science Bias = the four-letter word in psychology Examples: 1960s – behaviorism Cognitive aspect of depression Current revival of biological The superego punish/conscience Be open, be cautious, be critically appreciative 3. Psychoanalysis-the first model  Freud’s Personal History Parent’s relationship Relationship with his mother and view of her Relationship with his father and view of him Relationship between mother and brother Relationship with his nanny (2M), God, sexual abuse Move away from extended family Cultural context Minority- Neurotics and hysterics Hypnotism 4. Freudian Psychoanalysis  Theoretical Foundations Determinism (psychic) – driven (fear is dealt with using anger) Human psyche as dynamic interplay 2 main drives –eros and thanatos Symptoms formation is an unconscious action of the ego Psyche operates according to 5 principles (topographic/structural = ld, ego, and superego dynamic =the interplay between structures) also economic, genetic, descriptive 5. Psychoanalysis-key concepts  The pleasure & reality principles  Id, ego, and superego  Transference & counter transference  Resistance  Defense mechanisms Denial, suppression, repression, regression Splitting, dissociation Splitting, dissociation Displacement, intellectualization, reaction formation Oral Stage (1 year) - Mouth and nursing. - Oral incorporative sucking and swallowing. - Oral sadistic and devouring. Anal Stage (2 year) - Anus and toilet training. - Anal expulsive: giving. - Anal retentive: holding. Phallic Stage (3 -5 year) - Phallus/penis. - Oedipus complex: male and female attraction. - Persist in the boy: o Ambivalence, develops in the girl. Latency Stage (6 -12 year) - Sexual energy (blind) is repressed/rechanneled. - Sublimated to studies and athletics. 6. Goals & Problems with theory of Psychoanalysis Goals  Expose unconscious conflicts  Gain insight  Resolution of intra-psychic tension Problems with theory Assumes a person is only instinctual Relieves responsibility in interactions Fails to explain positive strivings Fails to reconcile the personality disorder 7. Psychoanalysis: Clinical Application & Issues Therapist is neutral Interprets projected material Analyzes unconscious content with patient Three Steps  Analysis/interpretation of unconscious  Leads client to insight  Resolution/education to action (resolution) Issues with therapeutic approach Ego strength, long term, training 8. Carl Jung: Analytical Psychology Theorist’s history Father pastor Mother depressed and hallucinatory OCD ritual as a child? Bullied at school led to fainting Hallucinations as an adult prior to WWII Explored alchemy, astrology, world religions sociology Theory Human psyche innately religious 2 levels of unconscious (personal & collective) Unconscious has to be integrated; not negated Symptoms lead to insight (mental illness is not) 9. Analytical Psychology Basic Concepts Basic Concepts Personal unconscious - Collective unconscious - Archetypes – universal innate models inherited aspect of psyche-unlearned manner of organizing our experiences Therapeutic Goals: Discover full potential Spiritual experiences Reconciliation of opposites 10. Adler’s Individual Psychology History of theorist -sibling relations 3 child of 6 (resented) Younger brother died when he was 3 - was a physician during World War I -health issues: rickets, small & frail -peer isolation/observer -self conscious -married Russian socialist Theoretical Foundations Life style is/can be conscious Adopted for a purpose Dynamic striving Social conscience 11. Individual Psychology  Key Concepts Superiority striving (masculine protest) Organ inferiority Lifestyle convictions Inferiority complex/superiority striving birth order? Cognitive map Cognitive organization  Goals Overcome feelings of inferiority Foster social interest Alter lifestyle convictions 12. Individual Psychology  Therapeutic Techniques (educational: Adlerian Society) Establish goals Uncover dynamic Interpret lifestyle convictions Reorganize Life Plan - use “as if” (collaborative)  Issues Effective & economical but level (socialism) Empowering and encouraging but very individual and not falsifiable Parent friendly – child allowed to be child BUT very individual & not falsifiable (subjective experience of reality >reality itself)  Contribution: parent friendly – child is allowed to be child! 13. Anna Freud- Ego Psychology  History-devoted, protective, prudent Youngest child-mistake, closer to father than mother, lifetime student of father, credits him  Under his analysis from the early 20s (permanent transference bond)  Under his analysis from the early 20s (permanent transference bond) Contributions  Broadened role of ego  Developed defense mechanisms (sublimation)  Modified structural conflict to vulnerability  Distinguished between child living and adult re-living conflict  Proactive work with children-Play Therapy –to prevent fixation through the recognition that children can “work through” issues. Child is dealing with external tensions; adults are dealing with internal tensions. 14. Anna’s Child Analysis “Children, in fact, believe only the people they love, and make efforts only for the love of such people.” Developed Stages of Childhood Prefigured the Eriksonian “crisis”: e.g. biological dependence on Mom develops an emotional bond egocentricity moves into companionship body moves from play object to work object Developed Play therapy Prepare: observe, engage its self-interest, show use Balance permissiveness and authority LIMIT- don’t make the child into an adult 15. Defense mechanisms Developed Anna pointed to the importance of the parent ◦Intra-psychic tension still but also interpersonal ◦Social added to sexual Ego develops and takes an active role ◦Mature defenses to protect self-esteem ◦E.g. rationalization, intellectualization, projection Sublimation and redirection allows socially acceptable soothing (smoking, suckers) ◦Do not deform ego as long as limited 16. Erikson’s Ego Psychology  Personal History- Scandinavian Jew, artist, stepfather-doctor, misfit in school, tall blonde in short dark family; misfit.  Key Concepts- healthy maturation Epigenetic principle: emergence of capacity related to biological development. Psychosocial stages: biological, therefore universal. Crises- identity crisis – challenge and not a catastrophe Positive and negative residue Psychosocial virtues – internalized habits Ritualism v.s ritualization – role play on internalized value. 17. Erik’s Life Cycle  Ego develops through to old age  8 universal crises (Freud & Anna) Trust-mistrust-hope/withdrawal Autonomy-shame-willpower/compulsion Initiative-guilt-purpose/inhibition Industry-inferiority-competence Identity-role confusion-fidelity –ideology to totalism Intimacy-isolatio
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