BIOL110 Lecture Notes - Emmetropia, Sightline, Superior Oblique Muscle

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30 Jan 2013
The Eye Lecture Notes
Walls of orbit
Pyramidal shaped
Twice as deep as wide
45 degree angle between orbits
eyeball occupies only anterior half
lots of blood vessels and fat
ofxn of fat
shock absorber, cushion
lubrication, fluid mvmt
protect nerves, vessels
last place that fat pads will disappear in body
when fat pads disappearsunken cheek and eyes
walls of orbit (7 elements): not smooth, full of holes and grooves
ofloor: maxilla, zygomatic, palatine
omedial: ethmoid, lacrimal, frontal
fragile bone, paper thin
oroof: frontal, sphenoid
olateral: zygomatic, sphenoid
zygomatic foramen: branch of maxillary
Orbital foramina
optic canal holds optic nerve and ophthalmic artery
superior orbital fissure: CN III, IV, V1, VI, ophthalmic veins
oophthalmic veins communicate w/ cavernous sinus and facial vein
inferior orbital fissure: CN V2 from foramen rotundum
fissures make V shape lateral to optic canal
ethmoidal nerves pass thru medial wallnasal nerves
fossa for lacrimal sac and nasolacrimal canal (inferomedial)
ocanal contains ductlacrimal fluid from surface of eye into nasal cavity
ocommunication between orbit and nasal cavities
lacrimal gland
superolateral part of orbit
sensory: V1
motor: pteryogoid ganglion of facial nerve
produces tears: blinking of eyes causes movement to keep eyes moist
obrings fluid from lateral corner to medial corner
drainage of tears
lacrimal glandcanalsconjunctival sac on surface of eyeballsurface of
eyelacrimal papillae with puncta (holes)canaliculaelacrimal
sacnasolacrimal duct
oconjunctiva: mucosa that covers eyelid and goes onto sclera of eye
rich with blood vessels
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gets inflamed during drinking and when particles touch it
nasolacrimal duct becomes saturatedcrying
onose runs when cry
eyelids: protective skin flaps
olevator palpebrae superioris
Inserts on tarsus superior (dense fibrous band) and goes deep and
b/w orbicularis oculi
assisted by superior tarsal muscle (sympathetic trunk)
oObicularis oculi
Forceful and passive closure of eye
Closing helps moisten cornea and protect from outside particles to
prevent inflammation and blindness
Tarsus (superior and inferior) with tarsal glands (mybomium glands)
oGlands open up on inner surface of eyelid
oGlands secrete lubricating liquid to keep eye moist and eyelids from
sticking together
oUnder hormonal control; sebaceous glands
oDuct can get cloggedget growth (some weird name)
Ciliary glands associated with eyelashes (cilia): superficial
oUnder hormonal control; sebaceous glands
oWhen clogstye
Common lesions
oThird nerve palsy: affects superior division of oculomotor
Ptosis: drooping of eyelids
Mild version: sympathetics to upper eyelid affected
oBell’s palsy (CN VII)
Eyeball: hollow sphere
3 coats
ofibrous outer coat
sclera: tough, dense fibrous coat that covers 5/6 of eyeball
cornea: continuous with sclera, transparent
ovascular middle coat—three components are continuous
choroids: highly vascularzied, most richly vascularized structure in
ciliary body: donut shaped, surrounds lens
ciliary processes: radial fibers from ciliary body to lens
osuspends lens
oworks with zonular fibers—radial (suspensory
ligament of lens)
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