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Lecture 3

Biol 120 - Lecture 3 Summary.pdf

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University of Waterloo
BIOL 120
Simon Chuong

Biol 120: Plant Biology   Lecture 3 Summary Terminology • homology: a structural likeness between corresponding parts of different organisms. • Autotrophs: “self-feeder”; An organisms that can make its own food through photosynthesis. • Heterotroph: “other feeder”; An organism that obtains food from other organisms. • Mixotroph: an organism that has both autotrophic and heterotrophic capabilities. Algae • Endosymbiosis played a key role in the evolution of Algae Genus Euglena: • Single celled organism • Most live in freshwater • they have two flagella • some are NON-photosynthetic o the photosynthetic variety contain Chlorophyll a & b, and carotenoids. o have a pyrenoid: protein-rich structure containing rubisco o have an “eye spot” and light detector to avoid the bright lights. o some species are mixotrophs. o reproduce asexually o carbohydrate is stored as glucose polymer “paramylon granules”. o Phylum Chromophyta – Yellow/Green Algae: • mostly freshwater • most unicellular, some multicellular/colonial • most have 2 flagella • chlorophyll a & c, carotenoids • Chloroplasts move in response to light intensity in environment. • reproduce mostly asexually – fragmentation or spores • ie: Vaucheria, has endosymbiotic relationship with a sea slug. Biol 120: Plant Biology   • Division Haptophyta - Phylum Prymnesiophyta: • contain chlorophyll a & c, and carotenoids • majority are marine • account for 50% of photosynthesis in mid-Altlantic • have 2 disc-shaped chloroplasts • have 2 flagella • live in gelatinous colonies • Phaseocystis produces UV absorbing compounds and releases dimethylsulfide. • Brown Algae (Kelp) – Phylum Phaeophyta • chlorophyll a & c, carotenoids (fucoxanthin) • mostly in shallow marine environments • Flagellated • produce spores and gametes • sessile, have heteromorphic generations, good habitats for other animals, source of algin (paint, cosmetic products). Red Algae (Seaweeds) – Phylum Rhodophyta • chlorophyll a & d, and Phycobiliproteins • mostly marine • no flagellated life cycles • complex life cycles, use for production of nori, agar and carrageenan Green Algae – Phylum Chlorophyta • share common ancestor with plants. • most freshwater, some terrestrial • chlorophylls a & b, and carotenoids. • store starch inside plastids • Class Charophyceae o Unicellular, colonial, and multicellular. o genus Coleochaetales and Charales are closest relatives of plants among algae.  Charales (stoneworts) form mineralized cell walls. o has many similarities to plants: apical growth, phragmoplasts and cell plates during mitosis, lignin-like compound, reproductive cells are protected. • ie, Chlamydomonas, Volvox, Chara Changes in Environment Biol 120: Plant Biology   • 450-700mybp, ~2% O2 in atmosphere • fossils of land plants appear ~450mybp o liverwort fragments • water was essential for growth and reproduction • plants were mostly limited to moist environments • they were small as they were fighting gravity Bryophytes Review • A division of small, simple plants that comprises the mosses and liverworts. • Are NO
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