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BIOL 303 Study Questions Set 8

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BIOL 303
Dragana Miskovic

BIOL 303 Study Questions Set 8 1. What are some of the characteristics of C. elegans that make a good model system for studying developing?  Type one embryogenesis  Immediate activation of zygotic genes  Rapid specification of blastomeres by products of zygotic genes and by maternally provided transcripts and proteins  Relatively small number of cells at start of gastrulation 2. What type of cleavage is observed in the C. elegans blastula?  Rotational holoblastic (complete)  Cleavage divisions are symmetric 3. What establishes the anterior-posterior axis in the C. elegans egg?  C. elegans are hermaphrodites: having both male and female reproductive parts  Elongated egg shape – defines future anterior-posterior axis > decision for anterior end relates to position of sperm pronucleus  Sperm centriole initiates cytoplasmic movement that pushes the male pronucleus to the nearest end – that end will become the posterior pole 4. What is the function of P granules? Is P granule movement dependent of microtubules or microfilaments? How was this determined?  P-granules: ribonucleoprotein complexes containing translation regulators that specify the germ cells in C. elegans and are localized by PAR (“partitioning”) proteins.  They are initially spread out evenly throughout the cell but after fertilization they become localized in the posterior.  Inherited by P1 cells after localization. P1 then divides more P granules and they are inherited by P2 cells. They are then associated with nucleus that then becomes P3, P4 – forms germ line.  Localization requires microfilaments  Experiment: drug treatment  cytochalasin D (disrupts microfilaments) prevents P
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