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Lecture 8

Lecture 8 - Cell Division - BIOL308.pdf

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BIOL 308
Bruce Wolff

Lecture 8The histone code HypothesisLysine arginine syrine can be modifiedAcetylation of lysinephosphorylation of serine reduces overall positive charge of proteinHistone proteins especially the tails are positively chargedAcetylation and deacetylation of histone tails enzymes histone acetylases and deacetylasesDNA becomes more detached when the histone tails become less positive this process is necessary for initiation of transcription gene expressionDNase will not degrade DNA in a cell this is just from an experimental point of viewRecall the Dnase I TestProkaryote vs EukaryoteKaryote from greek karyonkernel nucleusProbeforeProkaryote before nucleusEutrueEukaryote true nucleusProkaryotesEukaryotesNo membrane bound nucleusAll have a membrane bound nucleusSingle circular chromosomeNumber of chromosomes varies by speciesDont have membrane bound organellesHave membrane bound organelles organelle DNASingle cell organismCen be single cell or multicelled organismsNote prokaryote chromosome is technically not a chromosome not histone proteinsChromosome NumbersEach type of eukaryote has a species specific number of chromosomes in the nucleus of each cellChromosome sizes and shapesHomologous chromosomes same genes in same order on a chromosome but contain different allelesChromosome 21 is actually smallest chromosome not 22122 are autosomal chromosomesX and Y are sex chromosomes NOTES FROM LECTURES Page 1
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