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Lecture 1

BIOL 359 Lecture 1: Phylogenetic
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Department
Biology
Course
BIOL 359
Professor
Kristen Muller
Semester
Winter

Description
Phylogenetic: Study of ancestor descendant relationships Phylogeny: hypothesis, not final answer because things can change w/ new data of ancestor descendant relationships Phylogenetic Tree: to understand patterns of relationships Example: Domain of Life: SSurRNA (Small Subunit rRNA) data (all organisms have this gene, need to survive) • All life forms are related by common ancestry and descent • Phylogenies explain diversity seen in natural world o Can be based on morphological, physiological and/or molecular data o DNA sequence data typically used Phylogenetic Trees: • Rooted tree: time is implied on tree, back of tree is more in time (ancestor) (Figure A/B) on slide 5 o Polygamy/Comb: usually need more data to see relationship Phylogenetic Characters: • Characters bed to construct phylogenies • Can be any attribute of organism that can show relationships in history (shared ancestry) o Mammary glands in mammals • Molecular phylogenies usually look at nucleotide positions • Plesiomorphy: ancestral characteristics o Mammals and mammary gland (synapomorphy) apart from reptiles o Not informative on relationship, but it shows difference between organisms • Apomorphy: Character state different than ancestral state/derived state o Unique to particular species and all of its descendants, defining character for species/group o Example: Possession of feathers is unique to birds and defines them • Synapomorphy: derived character state (apomorphy) that’s shared by two or more taxa from common ancestor o Example: Mammary glands • Autapomorphy:Uniquely derived character state o distinct from ancestors • Monophyletic: All descendants of common ancestor (Clades) o Reptiles with inclusion of birds is considered monophyletic • Non-Monophyletic o Paraphyletic: includes some but not all descendants of common ancestor ▪ Reptiles group, when not including birds (Before discovery that they are related) o (Autapomorphy) birds were distinctly derived (highly derived) group from reptiles o Polyphyletic: grouping of taxa based on homoplasious characters ▪ Vultures in birds, new and old ▪ Doesn’t include most recent ancestor • Homoplasy: shared character that occurs due to independently evolved, not due to common ancestor (Same as analogy) o Warm blooded in some organisms are not due to common ancestor, but may be due to environment o Arose at different times (convergence) o Parallel: independent evolution of the same feat
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