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University of Waterloo
Computer Science
CS 100

Module 1: Desktop Functionality and Simple Communications o A network consists of two or more computers that are connected by physical cables or satellite and radio communication. o Networks enable several people to share information and equipment (such as printers) and to interact using applications such as electronic mail or instant messaging o One of the greatest advantages to using a networked system in the lab is that it enables us to store files on a centrally located computer called a fileserver File Storage o Compact Disks (CDs). CD-R opens (reads) files and the CD-W transfers (burns/writes) files from your hard drive onto the CD o Digital Video Disks (DVDs), can store more information than CDs o Universal serial bus (USB) flash drives have huge storage capacities o Secure Digital (SD) cards are also flash drives that are often found in cell phones, PDAs, and digital cameras o External Hard Drive o Floppy Disk  High density (HD) and double density (DD); difference is the amount of storage space on each kind Module 2: Spreadsheets o The workspace for a spreadsheet file is called a workbook o Each workbook includes one or more worksheets that are large grids of rows and columns o Each column (vertical) is represented by one or more letters, and each row (horizontal) is represented by a number o The intersection between a row and a column is called a cell o Each cell is identified uniquely by its location within the grid, and this unique combination is called the cell’s address o An active cell’s address is shown in the Name Box in the Formula Bar o It is often convenient to refer to a rectangular region of cells, known as a cell range o Cell ranges have two addresses separated by a colon Kinds of cell entries o Labels (e.g., Cost, 12 Arbour St.) o Numeric values (e.g., 34, 22.45) o Formulas (e.g. =B3/A2, =10*B3) o Labels are often called text strings, character strings, or just strings in other applications o Numeric values can also be used to represent financial information, and these can be displayed using common financial notations Formula Errors Error Message Meaning #DIV/0! Calculation requires dividing by zero. #N/A No value is available/no value matches the request. #NAME? A name used in the formula does not match those defined (see the next section). #NUM! There is a problem with a number (the one calculated or the one used in the formula). #REF! The formula refers to a cell that is not valid (e.g. has been deleted). #VALUE! You are trying to perform an operation on incompatible types (e.g. adding text and numbers). Representative Functions Function Example Description SUM SUM(A5:A9,2,B10) Adds together all values from cells and constants listed in the parameters MIN MIN(A5:A9,2,B10) Finds the minimum value in all mentioned cells and constants MAX MAX(A5:A9,2,B10) Finds the maximum value in all mentioned cells and constants AVERAGE AVERAGE(A5:A9,2,B10) Calculates the average value for all mentioned cells and constants COUNT COUNT(A5:A9,2,B10) Counts the number of numeric values from cells plus the number of numeric constants listed in the parameters CATENATE CONCATENATE(A6,"--",A5) Forms one label by laying each value from the or mentioned cells and constants end to end in the A6 & "--" & A5 order given; the “&” operator provides an alternative mechanism for concatenating labels SEARCH SEARCH("--",A7,5) Finds the leftmost location of the first label within the second label at or beyond the position given by the third parameter (default starting position is 1) MID MID(A6,start,2) Extracts part of the label specified by the first parameter, starting from the position given in by second parameter and having the length given by the third parameter LEN LEN(A17) Returns the number of characters in the label specified by the parameter The IF Function o The IF function is used when you want to display a value or calculate a value that is conditional on information in another cell. o =10+IF(A2<5,3,7) returns 13 if the contents of cell A2 is less than 5 and returns 17 otherwise COUNTIF Function o For example, COUNT(B16:D20) looks at the 15 cells in the specified range and counts how many of those cells contain a numeric value o COUNTIF(B16:D20,">5") counts how many cells have a value greater than 5,COUNTIF(B16:D20,"=no") counts how many cells contain the label “no”, and COUNTIF(B16:D20,"<>butter") counts how many cells do not contain the label “butter” SUMIF Function o =SUMIF(range, criteria, [sum_range]) o Range: The range you wish to check for the stated criteria. o Criteria: The criteria to determine whether or not the corresponding value is added. o Sum_Range: The value that is added if the given criteria is met. Module 3: VLOOKUP, INDIRECT o VLOOKUP (vertical lookup) provides this functionality for a table in which each row represents one entry o In general, VLOOKUP takes four parameters as follows: 1. the value to match in the lookup table (the search key) 2. the table to search for a match (the key is matched against the leftmost column) 3. the column in which to find the value to be returned (the leftmost column is column 1) 4. whether the closest match is to be found (TRUE) or an exact match is required (FALSE) o =IF(ISNA(VLOOKUP(A15,class,1,FALSE)),"not registered","OK") o which will return “not registered” if the content of A15 matches none of the values in the first column of the cell range named class. o To use lookup with inexact matching, the table must be sorted in increasing order of the value in its leftmost column. o INDIRECT takes a label as its only parameter and treats that label as if it were a cell address or cell range o SUMPRODUCT: Takes two parameters (two cell ranges of equal shape) and computes the sum of the products of the corresponding cell values in each range. Spreadsheet Design o A label stored in a neighbouring cell is not the same as naming the cell 1. Assign specific cells for each piece of data. 2. Place labels in adjacent cells to identify items of data. 3. Insert comments (notes) in any cell that would benefit from additional information. 4. Assign names to key input cells and ranges. 5. Enter formulas (using appropriate names or forms for the addresses) to calculate derived values, and spread them to adjacent cells as needed. 6. Check formulas as you enter them by changing the input data values several times to see the results. Compare those results to the calculations you did by hand before starting. Pay particular attention to formulas that are spread, copied, or moved. 7. Adjust column widths and choose formatting for each cell. Check the overall effect of the spreadsheet: Is it easy to find the important output? Are related components visually connected? Module 4: Large Spreadsheets and Charts o A worksheet display can be split vertically into two areas, known as panes, showing two separate groups of columns, or similarly it can be split into two horizontal panes showing two separate groups of rows. o It can also be split into four panes showing two separate groups of rows and columns simultaneously. o Unlike a split display, by freezing panes you can scroll only the bottom right part of the display; the other panes remain fixed. o A third way to view multiple parts of a spreadsheet is to open two (or more) windows. o Excel uses an exclamation mark to separate the sheet’s name from the cell reference, but Calc uses a period in place of the exclamation mark. We will use the exclamation mark in these notes. • E.g. =B2 * Sheet2!C3 Module 5: Introduction to HTML and World Wide Web o a network consists of two or more computers that are connected by physical cables or satellite and radio communication o A commonly used protocol that is the main workhorse of the Internet is called TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol) • When a large piece of data is sent using TCP/IP, it is broken down into smaller units, known as data packets, that are sent in separate, numbered envelopes • If any packet is lost, the protocol resends it. • The small packets are easier to resend and also allow better sharing of network bandwidth • The original data is reassembled from the individual packets by the destination computer before it is delivered to the application. • As an analogy, think of cutting a manuscript into small pieces, putting each into a separate numbered envelope, and then mailing them. o The Internet Protocol dictates that each computer (also known as a host) on the network must have a unique IP address HTML o The words enclosed by left and right angle brackets, called tags, indicate to the browser the nature of information on the webpage o HTML tags are not case-sensitive o Tags are paired o Paired tags surround the text to be affected o Tag pairs are nested o Opening tags may have attributes Hyperlinks o Arts and Science o Email hyperlink: Jane Smith o Images: Effective Webpage Design o Proximity: when items on a webpage appear close to each other, a relationship is implied o Separation: separation of objects from a "focal point" attracts and guides the reader's eyes o Alignment: important to signify relations, if lists or paragraphs are not aligned correctly, the reader cannot easily follow from one component to the next o Repetition: creates familiarity for the reader. Colours, logos, fonts etc should be consistent o Contrast: text and images should be easily distinguishable from the background XML o The Extensible Markup Language (XML) is an alternative notation to HTML, designed to allow users to mark data with descriptive tags and (at least temporarily) ignore the data’s presentation. o Like HTML, XML uses paired and nested tags, perhaps augmented with attributes o However, unlike HTML, XML allows you to use any tags you wish — whatever will be meaningful to you Module 6: Creating and Revising Wiki Articles Special Pages o As well as ordinary articles, wikis also include several classes of special pages that serve specific functions. o These articles have titles that are preceded by a namespace, a designator indicating the special nature of the page. o User pages • For every registered user on a wiki, there is a page in the User namespace on which information about the user can be recorded. • For example, if JaneSmith were a registered user, there would be a page User:JaneSmith on which she (or others) could record personal data. o Category pages • Articles can be classified into categories to support the users’ ability to browse the wiki, since each category has a corresponding page in the Category namespace o Image pages • Images stored in the wiki are addressed by referring to the image file in the Image namespace. • For example, Image:Sparky.jpg refers to a JPEG image file. o Discussion pages • every article in a wiki has a corresponding discussion page, on which users can debate the article’s contents. • For example, corresponding to the Wikipedia article entitled Nunavut, there is a discussion page labeled Talk:Nunavut. Introduction to Wiki Text o Headings are indicated by surrounding
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