ENGL210F – Module 2: The Writing Process (May 10, 2012)
Reading Notes: Chapter 2: page 36-51
Objectives: By the end of this module, you should be able to:
identify the steps in the writing process,
plan a message according to its purpose, scope, and audience, and
use a number of strategies for revising and editing communications effectively.
Online Article to Read: How to Treat Writer's Block - Writing Center at TCC
Every writer, sooner or later, suffers from some form of Writer's Block, the inability to
think of or organize ideas. Symptoms may include sweaty palms, pencil chewing, and a
pronounced tendency to sit in corners and weep. Although not every "cure" works for everyone,
here are a few suggestions to help minimize your misery:
Try to give yourself as much time as possible to write your essay. Don't try to write the
entire paper in one sitting. By doing so, you may place yourself under too much pressure.
Writer's Block often accompanies the "up against the wall" feeling that strikes at 2:00 a.m. the
morning your essay is due at 9:00. Rome wasn't constructed in a day, and neither are most good
Since most of you have had more experience talking than writing, try verbalizing your
ideas. Sometimes it's helpful to discuss your ideas with a friend or classmate. Their questions
and comments (not mention their sympathy for your temporary block) will often trigger the
thoughts you need to begin writing again. Or you might want to talk into a tape recorder so you
can hear what you want to say.
When an irresistible force meets an immovable object, something's going to give.
Conquer the task: break the paper into manageable bits. Instead of drooping with despair over
the thought of a ten-page research paper, think of it as a series of small parts (explanation of the
problem, review of current research, possible solutions or whatever). Then tackle one part at a
time and reward yourself when that section's done.
Get the juices flowing and the pen or the computer moving. Try writing the easiest or
shortest part of your essay first. A feeling of accomplishment may give you the boost of
confidence you need to undertake the other, more difficult sections. If no part looks easy or
inviting, try more prewriting exercises, like the ones described in Chapter 1, until you feel
prepared to begin the essay itself. The beauty of using a computer to compose is that you can
start anywhere you want and move text as your ideas change.
Play "Let's Make A Deal" with yourself. Sometimes we just can't face the failure that
we are predicting for ourselves. Strike a bargain with yourself: promise yourself that you are
only going to work on your paper for fifteen minutes--absolutely, positively, fifteen minutes, not
a second more, no sir, no way. If in fifteen minutes, you're on to something good, ignore your
promise to yourself and keep going. If you're not, then leave and come back for another fifteen
minute session later (if you started early enough, you can do this without increasing your
Give yourself permission to write garbage. Take the pressure off yourself by agreeing
in advance to tear up the first page or two of whatever you write. You can always change your mind if the trash turns out to be treasure; if it isn't, so what? You said you were going to tear it up
Imagine that your brain is a water faucet. If you're like most people, you've probably
lived in a house or apartment that contained a faucet that needed to run a few minutes before the
hot water started to come out. Think of your brain in the same way, and do some other, easier
writing task to warm up. Write a letter, make a grocery list, copy notes, whatever, to get your
brain running. I always clean house first; in addition to taking away excuses to not write later,
ideas seem to appear when I sit down to write. When you return to your paper, your thoughts
may be hotter than you thought.
Remove the threat by addressing a friendly face. Sometimes we can't write because we
are too worried about what someone else will think about us or maybe we can't write because we
can't figure out who would want to read this stuff anyway? Instead of writing into a void or to an
audience that seems threatening, try writing to a friend. Imagine what that friend's responses
might be and try to elaborate or clarify wherever necessary. If it helps, write the first draft as a
letter ("Dear Clyde, I want to tell you what happened to me last week. . ."), and then redraft your
ideas as an essay when you've found your purpose and focus, making whatever changes in tone
or development are necessary to fit your real audience.
If Writer's Block does hit, remember that it is a temporary bogdown, not a
permanent one. Other writers have had it--and survived to write again. Try leaving your papers
and taking a walk outdoors or at least into another room. Think about your readers--what should
they know or feel at this point in your essay? As you walk, try to complete the sentence "What I
am trying to say is. . . ." Keep repeating this phrase and your responses aloud until you find the
answer you want.
Sometimes while you're blocked at one point, a bright idea for another part of your essay
will pop into your head. If possible, skip the section that's got you stuck and start working on
the new part. (At least jot down the new idea somewhere so it won't be lost when you need it
Change partners and dance. If you're thoroughly overcome by the vast white wasteland
on the desk before you, get up and do something else for a while. Exercise, balance your
checkbook, or put on music and dance. (Mystery writer Agatha Christie claimed she did her best
planning while washing the dishes.) Give your mind a break and refresh your spirit. When you
come back to the paper, you may be surprised to discover that your subconscious writer has been
working while the rest of you played.
Here's the single most important piece of advice to remember: relax. No one--not even
the very best professional writer--produces perfect prose every time pen hits paper. If you're
blocked, you may be trying too hard; if your expectations of your first draft are too high, you
may not be able to write at all for fear of failure. You might be holding yourself back by being a
perfectionist at this point. You can always revise and polish your prose in another draft--the first
important step is jotting down your ideas. Remember that once the first word or phrase
appears on your blank page, a major battle has been won. Module 2 Notes - The Writing Process
Prewriting – the process that you go through before actually putting ideas on the screen or
fingers to the keyboard
Purpose (common reasons for writing, every document has a purpose)
o To request or provide information
o To create a record
o To explain a policy or procedure
o To provide instructions
o To encourage action
o To promote goodwill
o Scope refers to the level of detail required to give to the reader
o What is the reader expecting?
o What is your workplace or industry standard?
Format (informal, formal, etc.
Visual elements (what ones will you use, if any)
o An audience analysis should consider the following elements about the receiver:
Responsibility or position
Who are you writing this for? What is their role – the decision maker,
the advisor, etc?
o If it’s to the decision maker: information straight forward and
directly to them
o If advisor: give information but also explain your sources and
your thinking behind your ideas.
Attitudes, Interests, and questions