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Lecture

18th century reform jan 31.docx

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Department
History
Course
HIST 111
Professor
Troy Osborne
Semester
Winter

Description
th 18 Century Reform and War in Eastern Europe Themes -This an age of militaristic, bureaucratic, police states that resulted from the centralization of government -It is also the age of “Enlightened Absolutists” I. Enlightened Despot’s vs. Absolutists 1. Not divine right monarchists 2. Secular 1. Religious Toleration 2. Jesuits 1. Banned in nearly all catholic countries 2. Popes disbands them in 1778 3. Revived in 1814 3. Rational reformers 1. Rule by reason 2. Style 3. Abrupt 4. Use reason to benefit all subject and kingdom 4. Changing notion of state -From private property of King -To Abstract authority-King as executive 5. Enlightened despots rise aided by the wars of the 1700s -limit power of parliament to interfered (need to move quickly; cant wait so long for their approval) Introduction: The Domination of the French Model -Unites the whole of Europe and even India -Language -"Lingua Franc": used in treaties, in German universities 1 -Most refined language -Fashion and manners set the style of the time (e.g. fashion, cooking) Politics-the Model of Versailles -Even dominate over nature I. The Failure of Frances Model 1. Louis XV 1710-1774: indifferent in ruling, whereas his predecessor Louis XIV was very intent in ruling 3. Major Problem was Taxation -Taille-land tax that in theory everyone had to pay, but not in practice -Clergy Exempt (they payed the Prayer tax) -Nobility Exempt (they payed the Blood tax-fighting for their country) -Peasants not -Regional differences in how it is collected -Parlements blocked any new taxes (to preserve local authority) 4. 1726-1743 Cardinal Fleury -Ruled as first minister -He made decisions and King approves or disapproves -Kept country out of war -Relatively successful -After his death, Louis XV proclaims himself as minister 5. 1768-1774 Chancellor Maupeou -Louis XV appoints him -Parlements claimed to be the nation -Closed all Parlements (in effect closing down the local laws) and denied them the right to challenge edicts -Limits the power of judges -Tried to make application of the law more uniform 2 -Replaces the nobles of the Robe with salaried professional judges 6. Louis XVI Comes to Power -Restores the old Parlements and at the same time, appoints Turgot to a ministry of reform -Parlement blocks all of Turgot’s moves -Tugot supressed the guilds -Replaced the corvee -Corvee-labor tax for working on roads -Turgots resigns as Parlements resisted End results-the King is Executed -1778 France and England are at war -1789 France is in revolution over issues of taxations and about what is France? II. Prussia under the Hohenzollerns -Agrarian country, low natural resources, low population -Need to defend country A. Fredrick William (1713-1740) -Makes Prussia into a militarized police state that it remains until the end of WWIII -Discipline & Order -Obsessed with it and expected to be part of every aspect of life -Reorganized economy -80% of budget to army -Bureaucratic growth -"Working for the King of Prussia" -Europe`s first civil service by merit -Army was disproportionably large, but did not actually use it -France 20 million inhabitant 160,000 soldiers -Prussia 2 million – 72,000 s
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