Class Notes (806,585)
Canada (492,337)
Health (501)
HLTH 102 (117)

Health 102 Topic 1 (background ).docx

11 Pages
Unlock Document

University of Waterloo
HLTH 102
Scott Leatherdale

Health 102 – Topic 1 Setting the Context Learning Objectives for this Topic  Gain a better understanding of how complicated defining health can me. Its hard to define health  Understanding the current “health status” of Canadians. How healthy we are, and why we have some problems and not others  Walking through an applied example of why change is required. Why we need to change What is health? World Health Organization’s Definition: Health is a state of complete physical, mental and social wellbeing and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity. (Most people use this since it is used for the global population) Problems with the WHO definition: 1. Absoluteness of the word “complete”  This would result in most of us being considered unhealthy most of the time. Criticized because of the word “complete”. - Almost everyone has something wrong at some level at any given time, there are so many medical problems, and not everyone is perfectly healthy.  It also contributes to the ‘medicalization’ of society; if someone is not considered “healthy” they should always be seeking medical health. - New screening technologies let us find abnormalities that might never cause illness or disease. For Example, breast cancer rates keep increasing, but this is because of increased screening, and modern technology. (pin prick) We are finding more diseases, and more people are becoming ‘unhealthy’. The small amounts of cancer found can actually be fought off by one’s immune system, yet we diagnose people with this disease, when they really don’t have anything. - Pharmaceutical companies produce drugs for conditions not previously defined as health problems e.g., Acne or Peyronie's Disease 2. The nature of the disease is changing - Instead of infectious diseases, people are now dying from chronic (non-communicable diseases) Definition is not accurate anymore, because now we have more diseases. 100 years ago, we had these infectious diseases killing people, but now there are a lot more. - In Ontario, the two large killers are cancer and cardiovascular disease. 79% of people are dying from chronic diseases, not infectious diseases. “In our aging society, chronic illnesses are now the norm, this makes the WHO definition counterproductive because anyone with any level of chronic diseases is considered ill. “ Public Health Agency of Canada (PHAC) Definition: “Health is a capacity or resource rather than a state, a definition which corresponds more to the notion of being able to pursue one's goals, to acquire skills and education, and to grow.” - Even if you are a little unhealthy, if you can grow, you are considered healthy. Aboriginal Medicine Wheel Definition: The Medicine Wheel is a symbol that represents the circle of life. It is a very deep and complex symbol. A full understanding of all the teachings related to the Medicine Wheel would take a lifetime. A core concept of the Medicine Wheel is balance, harmony, and interconnectedness. Its not just physical health, its also spiritual and mental health A Medicine Wheel can represent:
The four stages of life: infant, youth, adult, and elder The four races of humans: black, yellow, white, and red The four seasons, the four cardinal directions, etc. you expect different things from different parts of the circle Medical Definition of Health: - Based on germ theory - Has been the same since the 19 century - Treats health as the absence of disease - Assumes that all diseases are caused by specific etiological agents - Individuals (patients) are passive recipients of intervention aimed to cure. You go see a medical professional, they intervene, and then you get treated.  In the PHAC and Aboriginal definitions, people are encouraged to make their own decisions and improve their own health Example of a Medical Model Definition: (maybe not the best if you're working in public health, but it could help with people in another profession) The American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) defines health in 6 simple ways: 1. A normal healthy patient. 2. A patient with mild systemic disease. 3. A patient with severe systemic disease. 4. A patient with severe systemic disease that is a constant threat to life. 5. A moribund patient who is not expected to survive without the operation. 6. A declared brain-dead patient whose organs are being removed for donor purposes.  Clicker Question: Within a public health system, the PHAC definition is the most appropriate. (Depends on situation) In the future, these definitions are not important, you should focus in the issue of wellbeing. What is WELLBEING? “The presence of the highest possible quality of life in its full breadth of expression focused on but not necessarily exclusive to: good living standards, robust health, a sustainable environment, vital communities, an educated populace, balanced time use, high levels of democratic participation, and access to and participation in leisure and culture.” - Physical, and also emotional wellbeing: Cancer survivors have a great amount of wellbeing, and they consider themselves to be very healthy. • Moving from the center to the left shows a progressively worsening state of health. • Moving to the right of center indicates increasing levels of health and wellbeing. - Farthest you can go is the neutral point, at the neutral point, you are healthy. Being neutral is better than being sick. You can also have a higher quality of life, on the more blue side. How healthy are Canadians?  Canada is a pretty healthy country  Life expectancy: Males 79, Females: 83, both: 81 Better than the global average. (On average, a longer life expectancy here, instead of Mexico or America) Why? Because of public health insurance. Everyone in Canada has excess to medicine, and people in the Sates do not. Things are improving in Canada, and soon more people are expected to live over 85 years. Medicine that is available to all Canadians is also called socialized medicine. But in the States, you have to have health insurance, and you have to go through ‘medicate’. If, in the Sates, you don’t have insurance, it is very expensive to have a medical issue. Living in Canada, we can have a very good life expectancy, perhaps the only country competing with this is Japan. *Graph showing improvements of life expectancy in Canada.  Average death rate is pretty low 70/1000 adults dies pre-maturely, which is pretty good.  Infant mortality rate is 6/1000 and global average is 57/1000, as Canadians, we are doing well.  Age Pyramid: Left side male, right side female. Baby Boomers are growing old, so therefore, we have an aging population. But we have a problem: people at the top are less healthy, and people at the bottom are the healthiest. We are worried about when all of these baby boomers actually get sick? Crisis coming: Health Systems are at their max, (wait lines, wait times, hospital space) as things get worse, we will have more problems.  Canadians are primarily dying from car accidents (injuries), this age group is ours; our demographic.  Few deaths due to infectious diseases, more deaths due to non- communicable diseases (in Canada), Few deaths due to injuries. We are higher than the regional average because people in different regions are dying from different things. As communicable disease death rates get lower, non-communicable death rates will increase. People have to die of something.  Clicker Question: Medical Professionals are not given the correct training, to deal with the medical problems today. Smoking cessation, instead of tropical illnesses. Doctor training at McGill University. Doctors also need to be trained for infectious disease, incase there is an outbreak. Cancer Problems in Canada Canadian Cancer Society: In 2012, there will be 186,400 new cases of cancer and 75,700 deaths from cancer in Canada – More new cases than the entire population of PEI – More deaths than the population of Victoria BC Four Types of Cancer: New Cases Deaths All 186,400 75,700 Lung (men & women) 25,600 20,100 Breast (women) 22,900 5,200 Prostate (men) 26,500 4,000 Colorectal (men & women) 23,300 9,200  “Unlike any other cancer, if you have lung cancer (largely prevalent in population), it will most likely kill you. It is not the most deadly Cancer, Pancreatic Cancer is.  Things are pretty bad now, in Canada, but they will continue to worsen  Clicker Question: Three things that cause cancer rates to increase: Increasing cancer burden due to risk behaviors, population growth, and aging population. Not genetics because genetics does not change.  Age structure, Population growth, risk behavior (burdening, in order) *Graph  Increasing expenses for cancer The total cost of cancer in Canada was estimated to be $14.2 billion in 1998 – Direct cost of healthcare services was $2.5 billion – Indirect cost due to mortality and lost productivity was $11.7 billion. People who die, after being trained, we lost a productive member of society, they cannot pay taxes anymore  Professor’s Email: A direct cost is a medical expense associated with treatment or diagnosis, and indirect cost would be one associated with a person no longer being able to contribute to society as a whole (e.g., if they die early they stop being a productive member of the work force, they stop paying taxes, they are not around to raise children, they stop buying goods and services, etc.). Future costs will increase dramatically as a result of the infrastructure demands required for treating cancer (e.g., hospitals, oncologists). We need more hospitals, train more doctors, and more assistants. This is very expensive, and takes a lot of time. The problem will get even worse. Conservative estimates suggest: Over the next 30 years: – The Canadian economy is expected to lose over $540 billion in wage-based productivity due to cancer - The Federal and Provincial governments combined are expected to lose over $248 billion in tax revenues as a result of cancer disability (We are the future tax payer) $29,425 per Canadian (start saving your pennies) – The direct health care costs associated with cancer are expected to exceed $176 billion over the same period.  Recent evidence from BC: We spend most of our money on health and education. They will be bankrupt (just by spending money on health and education) by 2017 in order to balance their budget. Provincial Revenue grows at 3% per year. These are services that we expect to get for free, meaning that other services from other ministries will be cut. So now, they are trying to come up with solutions, all provinces are in the same boat; they all need to figure it out. Provinces are under a lot of financial problems; BC shows portfolios for education and health (two largest ministries). If revenues, and education grows 3% (cost) a year each, they cancel each other out, but then health portfolios increase by 8% (increase in cost) per year. BC will be screwed in a few years, as there is a huge health crisis happening. - No need to memorize stats, but what do the numbers m
More Less

Related notes for HLTH 102

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.