HLTH173 Lecture Notes - Lecture 1: Heuristic Evaluation, Industrial Engineering, Usability Testing

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HLTH 173 – Week One Notes
2 Characteristics of Design (ELABORATE!):
1. Choice
2. Compromise
Human Factors Goals:
1. Enhance performance
oPerformance = All-encompassing term that may involve the reduction
of errors or an increase in productivity
2. Increase safety
3. Increase satisfaction
…Of human interaction with systems
How are these 3 goals accomplished?
-Point A: Diagnose – Identify problems and deficiencies in human-system
interaction of existing system
oTo do this, core knowledge of nature of physical body (size, shape,
strength), and of the mind (information-processing characteristics
and limitations) must be coupled with a good understanding of the
physical or information systems involved – in addition to the usage of
appropriate Analysis Tools to clearly define the cause(s) of
breakdowns
-Point A Point B: Implementation - Once problem is identified, 5 different
approaches (pertaining to Design) can be directed toward implementing
solutions:
oEquipment, Task, Environmental, Training, Selection
5 Types of Design:
1. Equipment Design (Prescription Meds Bottle) – Changes nature of the
physical equipment with which humans work
2. Task Design (Worker in Assembly Line) – Focuses more on changing what
operators do than on changing what devices they use (ex. eliminating manual
lifting)
3. Environmental Design – Implements changes in environment where task is
carried out (Ex. Lighting, temperature, noise management structure)
4. Training Design – Focuses on better preparing worker for conditions that he
or she will encounter in job environment by teaching/practicing necessary
skills (Ex. Mental and physical skills required for the job)
5. Selection Design – Recognizes individual differences across humans in
almost every physical and mental dimension that is relevant for good system
performance (Ex. Select operators who have the best physical abilities)
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Origins of Human Factors:
-Initial focus on military and industrial applications, but expanded focus over
past decades
oIndustrial manufacturing, nuclear power, chemical processes
oComputer applications and IT
oHealth care
oConsumer products (watches, cameras, VCRs)
oTransportation
Scope of Human Factors:
Characteristics of Human Factors:
-Goal-oriented rather than content-oriented – Precise boundaries cannot be
tightly defined
oContextual environment of system - Matrix of human factors depicts
human performance issues against contextual environments within
which factors may be applied
Ex. Within context of operator (Criteria compared to Task
Analysis categories)
oCriteria = Human components – Ex. Visibility, Motor
Control, Muscular Strength
oTask Analysis – Individual (Ex. Manufacturing, Health
Care, Transportation), Group (Ex. Team, Organization)
Team = Cooperative project, Organization =
Concern with management structure
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3 Overlapping Disciplines with Human Factors:
1. Ergonomics – Focus on human factors pertaining to physical work (Ex.
lifting, fatigue), Closely related to aspects of human physiology
2. Engineering Psychology – *****Discipline within psychology (WHEREAS
study of Human Factors is a discipline within engineering)*****
oGoal of studying Human Factors = System design, accounting for
factors (psychological and physical) that are properties of the human
component
oGoal of Engineering Psychology = Understand human mind as is
relevant to the design of systems*****
3. Cognitive Engineering (also closely related to Human Factors) – Focus is on
complex, cognitive thinking and knowledge-related aspects of system
performance, whether carried out by human or machine agents, the latter
dealing closely with elements of artificial intelligence and cognitive science
2 Developments/Actions Related to the Study of Human Factors as a Science:
1. Generalization – We want to generalize across classes of problems that may
have common elements, but such generalization is more effective when it is
based on a deep understanding of the physical and mental components of the
operator
2. Prediction – Prediction of solutions designed to create good human factors
will actually succeed when put into practice
Study/Observation of Operator = Key to achieving aforementioned 2
HLTH 173 – Week One Notes Cont’d
What do we want and how can we do it?
-We want technology to conform to users, not for users to conform to the
technology
-We need to start changing technology to fit the user, not changing the user to
fit the screen
Why design?
-Provides insight into the thought process that lead to the design under
consideration
-Allows us to understand and critique technologies from the same perspective
as the designers
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