HLTH173 Study Guide - Final Guide: Detection Theory, Aviation Safety Reporting System, Usability Testing

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HLTH 173 – Week One Notes
Human Factors Goals:
1. Enhance performance
oPerformance = All-encompassing term that may involve the reduction
of errors or an increase in productivity
2. Increase safety
3. Increase satisfaction
…Of human interaction with systems
5 Types of Design:
1. Equipment Design (Prescription Meds Bottle) – Changes nature of the
physical equipment with which humans work
2. Task Design (Worker in Assembly Line) – Focuses more on changing what
operators do than on changing what devices they use (ex. manual lifting)
3. Environmental Design – Implements changes in environment where task is
carried out (Ex. Lighting, temperature, noise management structure)
4. Training Design – Focuses on better preparing worker for conditions that he
or she will encounter in job environment by teaching/practicing necessary
skills (Ex. Mental and physical skills required for the job)
5. Selection Design – Recognizes individual differences across humans in
almost every physical and mental dimension that is relevant for good system
performance (Ex. Select operators who have the best physical abilities)
3 Overlapping Disciplines with Human Factors:
1. Ergonomics – Focus on human factors pertaining to physical work (Ex.
lifting, fatigue), Closely related to aspects of human physiology
2. Engineering Psychology – *****Discipline within psychology (WHEREAS
study of Human Factors is a discipline within engineering)*****
oGoal of studying Human Factors = System design, accounting for
factors (psychological and physical) that are properties of the human
component
oGoal of Engineering Psychology = Understand human mind as is
relevant to the design of systems*****
3. Cognitive Engineering (also closely related to Human Factors) – Focus is on
complex, cognitive thinking and knowledge-related aspects of system
performance, whether carried out by human or machine agents, the latter
dealing closely with elements of artificial intelligence and cognitive science
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2 Developments/Actions Related to the Study of Human Factors as a Science:
1. Generalization – We want to generalize across classes of problems that may
have common elements, but such generalization is more effective when it is
based on a deep understanding of the physical and mental components of the
operator
2. Prediction – Prediction of solutions designed to create good human factors
will actually succeed when put into practice
Study/Observation of Operator = Key to achieving aforementioned 2
Software Design Cycle:
-Understand – Involving users throughout the development lifecycle
oUnderstand user and their task
oRule of Thumb: Greater functionality leads to greater complexity…
beware of Feature Creep!
Feature Creep - The ongoing expansion or addition of
new features in a product, such as in computer software
oExtra features go beyond the basic function of the
product and so can result in software bloat and over-
complication rather than simple design.
oWhen you start supporting features rarely used
oWhen you are paying people to add features that you
may not necessarily use frequently – although this does
make the software usable by a larger audience
-Designers need to think carefully (Task Analysis)
oDesign – Use of guidelines and principles in design
oEvaluate – Iterative usability testing
-2 main methods:
oHeuristic Evaluation:
“Heuristic” = Rule of Thumb
Use these techniques often to evaluate design because they are:
oCost and time effective
oEasy to do
oCan identify many issues (goes through a checklist)
oFormal Usability Tests and Metrics
Begins as early in the design process as possible
Usability Metrics – What is being measured, often change in
nature and scope over time
Becomes more formalized and often quantitative as design
takes on more specific form
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Norman’s 7 Stages of Action (NOT EFFECTIVE!):
Execution Bridge (Goals  Physical System)
1. Goals
2. Intentions – What are you trying to get out of performing the action at hand?
3. Action Specification – What are you doing?
4. Interface Mechanism – How are you doing it? (What are you using in order
to?)
Evaluation Bridge (Physical System  Goals)
5. Interface Display – What is computer showing you?
6. Interpretation – What does this mean to you?
7. Evaluation – How did it influence your actions? Were they successful?
Effective?
3 User Factors:
1. Frequency of task performance
2. Mandatory vs. discretionary use
3. Knowledge level of user
oSchneiderman - Novice users, knowledgeable intermittent users,
expert frequent users
Novice Users – People who know the task but have little or no
knowledge of the system
Knowledgeable Intermittent Users – People who know the
task but because of infrequent use may have difficulty
remembering the syntactic knowledge of how to carry out their
goals
Expert Frequent Users – Users who have deep knowledge of
tasks and related goals, as well as the actions required to
accomplish these goals
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