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Lecture 10

Lecture 10 TEXTBOOK NOTES.docx

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University of Waterloo
HLTH 220
Linda Jessup

Lecture 10 –Intelligence nd Textbook: Lifespan Development: A Topical Approach 2 Edition Modules: 8.1,8.2 and 8.3 Module 8.1. Intelligence: Determining Individual Strengths  What is intelligence, and how has it been measured over the years?  What are newer conceptions of intelligence? - Intelligence is the capacity to understand the world, think with rationality, and use resources effectively when faced with challenges French minister approached Alfred Binet to devise a technique for the early identification of students who might benefit from instruction outside the regular classroom  distinguish intelligent from unintelligent students 1. His pragmatic approach to the construction of intelligence tests without theoretical preconception of what intelligence was  used trial and error 2. Focus on linking intelligence and school success  reliance on teachers 3. Developed a procedure of assigning each intelligence test score to a mental age, the age of the children taking the test who, on average, achieve that score o Intelligence quotient (IQ), a score that takes into account a student’s mental and chronological age IQ Score = Mental Age  100/Chronological Age Measuring IQ: Present-Day Approaches to Intelligence - Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale (5 edition) o Asked to answer questions about everyday activities or to copy complex figures o Test is administered orally, and given progressively more difficult problems until they are unable to proceed - Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (4 edition) and Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (4 edition) o Separate measures of verbal and performance skills  The verbal tasks are traditional word problems testing skills  Complex design, arranging pictures in a logical order - Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children (2 edition) o Children are tested on their ability to integrate different kinds of stimuli simultaneously and to use step-by-step thinking  focus on flexibility o Alternative wording or gestures, or even to pose questions in a different language making it valid and equitable for children to whom English is a second language o Group IQ tests  more restricted, distracted by others, and motivated to answer when asked individually  Reliability –exist when a test measures consistently what it is trying to measure  Validity –when it actually measures what it is supposed to measure Learning disabilities are defined as difficulties in the acquisition and use of listening, speaking, reading, writing, reasoning, or mathematical abilities  attention- deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and dyslexia, a reading disability that can result in the misperception of letters during reading and writing, unusual difficulty in sounding out letters, confusion between left and right, and difficulties spelling  Fluid intelligence –reflects information processing capabilities, reasoning, and memory  Crystallized intelligence –is the cumulative information, skills and strategies people have learned and can apply in solving problems Gardner suggests that there are eight distinct intelligences; independent of each other  musical, naturalist, bodily kinesthetic, logical mathematical, linguistic, intrapersonal, interpersonal and spatial intelligence  Triarchic Theory of Intelligence –the belief that intelligence consists of three aspects of information processing: the componential element, the experiential element, and the contextual element  According to Sternberg: o Practical intelligence –learned primarily by observing others and modeling their behaviour o Emotional intelligence –is the set of skills that underlies the accurate assessment, evaluation, expression, and regulation of emotions  “familiarity breeds rigidity”  productivity of early adulthood after the period of creativity o One may argue that creativity is a person’s willingness to take risks that may yield high payoffs Module 8.2. Controversies Involving Intelligence  How is intelligence of infants measured, and does infant intelligence predict adult intelligence?  Why do some groups perform better than others on IQ tests, and what do such grou differences mean?  Does intelligence decline in adulthood and old age?  Developmental quotient an overall developmental score that relates to performance in four domains: motor skills, language use, adaptive, behaviour and personal and social skills  Gesell Development Schedule was designed to differentiate normally developing babies from those with atypical development  compared their performance at different ages to learn what behaviours were most common at particular ages o Looked specifically at milestones  Bayley Scales of Infant Development a measure that evaluates an infant’s development from 2 to 42 months o Concentration on mental (perception, memory, learning, problem solving and language) and motor abilities (fine and gross motor skills) o Yields a developmental quotient (DQ) an overall developmental score that relates to performance in four domains: motor skills, language use, adaptive, behaviour and personal and social skills * Good snapshot of an infant’s current developmental level which determines whether a child falls behind or is ahead  identifying infants who are substantially behind and need special attention - Speed of an infants’ information processing may correlate most strongly with later intelligence o They will turn their attention away from stimuli faster  Testing for visual-recognition memory, the memory of and recognitio
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