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Lecture 2

Lecture 2-10 Most of the overhead slides (condensed version of the course notes) This may be outdated since Allard doesn't teach this course anymore

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University of Waterloo
KIN 155
Fran Allard

Lecture Two Motor Cortex neural signals --> muscle contraction --> movement signals comes from Brain => spinal cord => motor neurons => muscle variations of movements comes from different levels of contraction + change in muscle length Review CNS = brain + spinal cord o Voluntary movements are produced by CNS o important component for movement are: cerebral cortex cerebellum basal ganglia spinal cord CNS generates control signals to muscle (efference); and evaluates sensory feed back (afference) cerebral cortex --> 2 hemispheres: each divided into 4 lobes: 1. frontal lobe 2. parietal lobe 3. occipital lobe 4. temporal lobe cortical areas responsible for motor control are: o motor cortex o premotor cortex o supplementary motor area all located in the frontal lobe motor cortex and somatosensory show topographic or somatopic organization electrical stimulation of motor cortex results in movement of the body part controlled @ that location --> neurons of motor cortex communitcates w/ motor neurons in spinal cord damage in motor cortex produces weakness in the muscle controlled by that area the size of the area of motor cortex controlling a particular limb can change w/ learning o ie. expert badminton player's forearm Somatosensory cortex is located behin the motor cortex and is: responsible for sensing touch + position of body also organized somatopically but homuculus is different from motor cortex Also modifiable be experience: ie. Left hand area of violin player Lecture Three - Sub-cortical Structures Somatosensory Cortex (S1) located behind the motor cortex in the parietal lobe responsiblefor perceiving sensory information from touch ad proprioception (somatosensation) arranged somatopically, with different sized areas for sections of the body than found in the motor cortex; shown in a homuculus diagram o string player's somatosensory area found larger at the left hand area; area also increases as the player starts from an earlier age (learning can modify the somatosensory cortex) Premotor cortex located in front of primary motor cortex important role in selection and preparation of a movememt (planning of a movemen) o if damaged --> inability to plan strategy for a movement [condition in human: apraxia] mirror neurons important fo the ability to learn a skill by watching another person and understanding their intention; important for social abilities Supplementary Motor Area (SMA) located infront of primary motor cortex, above premotor cortex responsible for programming sequences of movements coordination of both hands o damage to SMA causes inabilily for hands to work togther the premotor and supplementary motor areas both work THROUGH the motor cortex o but cannot produce movements on their own Review Additional Cortical motor control centres are Premotor cortex, important for movement selection and preparation, especially imvolved in when movement involves a response to visual cue o the location of mirror neutons o supplementry motor area (SMA), important in production of movement sequences Next -> subcortical motor control structures the cerebellum and the basal ganglia Lecture Four - More Subcortical Structures 1. the cerebellum means little brain in latin o 10% of the brain by weight, but contains more than half the neurons o works as an indirect controller of movement: does not directly produce movement like motor cortex, but is important in both production and perception o has 3 major function sections 1. vestibulocerebellum: important in control of eye movement and body equillibrium during stance and gait 2. Spinocerebellum: important in execution of an on-going movement it adjusts movements so that they occur as planned 3. cerebrocerebellum: important in the timing and initiation of movement o cerebella diseases or damaged can produce 1. disruption to the comtrol of limb and eye movements 2. impaired balance 3. decreased muscle tone 4. tremor(osillation) while moving, especially at the end of a movement o Thus the cerebellum makes a movement happen as planned. o It can do this because: it gets information about the plan/ intention of the movment from the cortex it gets sensory info from ongoing movement it projects to the descending motor control system and can influence how a movement is produced recent research suggests the cerebellum is important for motor learning 2. the basal ganglia o made up of 5 subcortical nuclei: 1. caudate 2. putamen 3. subthalamic 4. globus pallidus 5. substantia nigra o similar to cerebellum, acts as an indirect controller: nuclei get input from the entire cortex and send otputs into prefrontal and premotor cortex through the thalamus o disorder here produce major movement problems: huntinton's disease and parkinson's diease parkinson's is caused by a deficiency in the neurotransmitter dopamine b/w thr substantia nigra and the striatum symtoms are rhythmic tremor at rest increased muscle tone or rigidity
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