China: Social and Political Challenges
1. Environmental problems
2. population growth
3. inequality and migration
4. Political protests: student mocement and Tibetan nationalism
- industrial pollutions
- China’s level of Indu. polu. increased considerably in China after their reforms
- this always happens during periods of rapid industrialization.
- China’s carbon dioxide emissions, contributing to the global climate change (e.g Tibetan
- China’s main form of energy is coal. it has very little in terms of oil and that is why it is so
interested in offering support to african countries with large oil deposits. Coal is a very dirty
source of energy much more so than oil.
- one of the problems associated with Global warming is the melting of glaciers. China is one of
the wrost contributors to this melting as well as one of the most affected by this melting.
China’s largest river is filled by Tibetan glaciers.
- in 2009 China;s gov’t adopted national targets for a reduction of carbon dioxide emissions.
these are voluntary targets. - Policies: closed some of the worst pollutors; passed a more stringent env. legislation, and
research in, and the use of, clean sources of energy. This shows China’s status as a rapid
emerging economy. Sustainable energy is very much enouraged in china.
- the problem remains. pollution is not the only one
- the overuse of water resources, especially water for irrigation
- policies: water conervation, improved irribation teachonologies, research on GM drought
resistant crops. Live stock consumes a huge amount of grain.
- one child policy, implemented along with market reforms
- sanctions (fines, etc)
- rewards (bonuses, etc)
- Population growth rates:
- 1970s: 2.7%
- 2000s: <1%
- some of the new problems:
- aging population
- gender bias/imbalance
- since the 1990’s chinas ration of boys to girls has steadily climbed. It is projected that by 2020
there will be an access of 30 million men. inequality and migration
- regional inequalities: N vS
- Sectoral inequalities: rural v urban
- most money after the end of communes went to industrial areas rather than agriculture
- this inequality results every year in huge rural urban migration.
- in 2009 more than 150,000,000 people relocated to gain access to urban employ