Class Notes (811,321)
Canada (494,649)
Psychology (2,034)
PSYCH 101 (695)

PSYCH 101 Unit VII Thinking & Intelligence

5 Pages
Unlock Document

University of Waterloo
Richard Ennis

PSYCH 101  Unit 8: Intelligence The So-called “Definition” of Intelligence: • Intelligence tests are a series of questions or exercises that attempt to assess the mental abilities of people o The assessment generates a numerical (i.e. quantifiable) score that can be compared with another • Dubiously, intelligence as a result can be defined as “whatever the intelligence test measures” Sir Francis Galton’s Interpretation of Intelligence (Based on the Person/Biology): • Galton proposed a theory about high intelligence based on o Biology (i.e. evolution) o A powerful and efficient brain and nervous system o Heredity o Eugenics  The world’s resources should be made available to those who can utilize it best.  Those who cannot use the resources well should be left to perish, leaving only the “best people” in order to progress society • Galton observed that success seemed to be inherent in certain family trees, and therefore intelligence was passed on between generations of families • When Galton’s cousin, none other than Charles Darwin, developed the theory of evolution, this led Galton to believe that intelligence was naturally selected by evolution o Some families more “evolved” than others = more intelligent o People therefore born intelligent or not • The first ever questionnaire was as a result of Dalton’s research using his mobile labs o He got people to tell them about the type of family they came from, and then used that as a basis to predict how well those people could perform on his test o This was a failure; family ties were not a good correlation to explain how people did on his tests Alfred Binet’s Interpretation of Intelligence (Based on the Environment): • Binet disagreed with Dalton and had a more flexible and pragmatic definition of intelligence o Intelligence was not fixed, but grows naturally with experience o It also encompassed a loose collection of other capabilities like memory, attention, reasoning, etc. o Intelligence was also tied together with good judgment • Therefore, Binet’s hypothesis about intelligence was more focused on the “nurture” aspect as opposed to the nature aspect. o Environment affects intelligence, not biology • Binet proposed that a person’s intelligence could be measured by comparing one’s mental age with one’s chronological age o He invented the first practical intelligence test o A person of “high” intelligence would be a person whose mental age surpasses their chronological age, and vice versa for “lower” intelligence • The Binet & Simon Test (1905): How does it work? o The subject would indicate their chronological age o The subject is then asked to perform 5 “common tasks” that are inherent in each age until they get to the point where all 5 tasks are done wrong.  This determines the person’s “mental age” o The general age bracket of the person’s mental age is determined in the age bracket where all 5 tasks were done correctly  Additional points are added for eath task that was done correctly in age brackets past the highest one (1/5 point per correct task) • In the case above, the person’s highest age is 8, because that is the last age bracket where all the tasks were done correctly • The person also did some tasks correctly in the age 9 and 10 brackets, but the test is stopped at age 11 since all 5 tasks were done incorrectly th • The person’s mental age is therefore calculated to be 8.8 with the additional 1/5 points added for the tasks done correctly past age 8 o Thus, this person would be considered “normal” or “higher intelligence if their chronological age was ≤ 8.8 (less than or equal to 8.8 years old) o Or the person would be “retarded” if their chronological age
More Less

Related notes for PSYCH 101

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.