Individual Differences – July 23, 2013
Individual differences: Galton, intelligence, morals and personality are innate
studied mental imagery in lab and out. He invented tests to asses mental abilities. He
was interested in anyone not specific groups a and b ex.
Experts vs. novices:
1. experts and novices even equal exposure to into, or pick up on differed
amounts of it. Experts will perceive more distinctions especially subtle ones
more than novices.
2. Experts and novices differ in their conceptual representations of information
and problem solving.
(Chess masters, de groot and chase and simon) masters choose best move more
easily, but only when the pieces are configured to depict a possible game and can
recall more items. If its just random then both have troubles. Chess masters
have more examples therefore they chunk them and have better store to pick
from. And second they represent problems at a deeper more conceptual level –
memorize the pieces In a meaningful way.
Aging: episodic and working memory:
Z score: represents a divergence from the mean in the past
Episodic (personable event memories) and working (mental desktop 7+/- 2)
Decline after the 60’s, gradual continual decline in memory, in 50’s are above
average (0) but then decline after that. DECLINE IN BOTH.
Semantic memory: for names and labels of objects – Remain in tact and continue
to increase over the lifespan (learn more)
3 main changes in the brain: SHORT ANSWER
1. Reductions in the brain volume stemming from gray and white matter
atrophy (shrinkage) the whole brain
2. Synaptic degeneration which impairs communication between neurons, at
3. Reduction in regional cerebral blood flow, less blood bringing oxygen to the
brain, therefore it works more slowly
Ways to compensate: older adults who more activity in the frontal lobes compared
to young adults during episodic encoding, episodic, working memory, perception.