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Individual Differences and experts vs. Novices .docx

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Nathaniel Barr

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Individual Differences – July 23, 2013 Individual differences: Galton, intelligence, morals and personality are innate studied mental imagery in lab and out. He invented tests to asses mental abilities. He was interested in anyone not specific groups a and b ex. Experts vs. novices: 1. experts and novices even equal exposure to into, or pick up on differed amounts of it. Experts will perceive more distinctions especially subtle ones more than novices. 2. Experts and novices differ in their conceptual representations of information and problem solving. (Chess masters, de groot and chase and simon) masters choose best move more easily, but only when the pieces are configured to depict a possible game and can recall more items. If its just random then both have troubles. Chess masters have more examples therefore they chunk them and have better store to pick from. And second they represent problems at a deeper more conceptual level – memorize the pieces In a meaningful way. Aging: episodic and working memory: Z score: represents a divergence from the mean in the past Episodic (personable event memories) and working (mental desktop 7+/- 2) memory: Decline after the 60’s, gradual continual decline in memory, in 50’s are above average (0) but then decline after that. DECLINE IN BOTH. Semantic memory: for names and labels of objects – Remain in tact and continue to increase over the lifespan (learn more) 3 main changes in the brain: SHORT ANSWER 1. Reductions in the brain volume stemming from gray and white matter atrophy (shrinkage) the whole brain 2. Synaptic degeneration which impairs communication between neurons, at smallest level 3. Reduction in regional cerebral blood flow, less blood bringing oxygen to the brain, therefore it works more slowly Ways to compensate: older adults who more activity in the frontal lobes compared to young adults during episodic encoding, episodic, working memory, perception. Unilateral
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