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Psych 257 Chap 11 Psych 257 Psychopathology Barlow et Al: Abnormal Psychology 2nd CDN edition Chapter 11

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Uzma Rehman

SubstanceRelated Disorders abuse of drugs ex Alcohol cocaine heroin taken to alter feelings thinking etc polysubstance use multiple drugs Perspectives on SubstanceRelated Disorders substance chemical compounds ingested to alter moodbehavior diff levels of use Levels of involvement use moderate ingestion dont significantly interfere with social educational occupational functioning intoxication physiological reaction impaired judgment mood changes lowered motor ability abuse depends on how significantly it interferes with users life substance dependence physiologically dependent on drug toleranceuse required to produce same effect withdrawal physically negative response if substance is no longer ingested symptoms delirium hallucinations tremors chills fever nausea aches and pains criteria for dependence drug seeking behaviours ex Stealing money standing in the cold to smoke etc gambling similar show tolerance and withdrawal symptoms as well same treatments for drug abuse may work can be dependent wo abuse ex Cancer patients w morphine some drugs easier to be addicted toex Nicotine crack meth most addictive weed MDMA shrooms LSD least addictive Diagnostic Issues orig substance usesymptom of other problems now subtypes of diagnoses for each substance unsure over directionality of substance use and other disorders ex Depression maybe just due to prevalence ex Alcohol risk taking gambling PTSDselfmedicationsubstance use rule if symptoms of schizophreniaanxiety appear during substance use wn 6 weeks must be due to drug 5 groups of drugs depressants stimulants opiates hallucinogens and other ex Airplane glue steroids NO Depressants decrease CNS activity help to relax ex Alcohol insomnia sedatives most likelydependence tolerance etc Alcohol Use Disorders description initial stimulant effect due to decreased inhibition then motor coordination reaction time etc effects circulatory system distributes alcohol throughout body affects number of diff neuroreceptor systems ex GABA system inhibitory NT alcohol usedifficult for neurons to communicateantianxiety memory loss blackouts due to effect on glutamate system mood sleep eating due to serotonin system effect pain numbing due to effect on endogenous opioids release bodys natural analgesic withdrawal delirium aka Delirium Tremens DT hallucinationtremors reduced w medical treatment briain damage from alcohol dependence maywernickesunintelligible speech or dementia brain poisonfetal alcohol syndrome from mothers drinking while pregnantretardation cognitive deficits difficulties etc statistics 23 of CDNs exceed lowrisk 17 high risk usu more in men 4x as much varies across settings9 of all drinkers experience alcohol problems 3 CDNsbecome alcohol dependent financial problems etc progression fluctuation bw heavy social and abstinence 20 of dependents have spontaneous remission dependence is progressive but abuse is not in terms of violence alcoholless fear of punishment Sedative hypnotic or anxiolytic substance use disorders sedative calming hypnotic sleep anxiolytic less anxiety barbiturates meant to replace alcohol help sleep benzodiazepines antianxiety safer than barbiturates less risk of abusedependence anxiolytics potential for dependence may also be used for other things ex Rohypnol daterape description barbiturates low dose muscle relaxed feeling well high slur problem walkingconcentrationsimilar to alcohol include maladaptive behavioural change combining w other drugssynergy effect statistics declining use of barbituratesbenzodiazepinesuse of slowly eliminated benzos higher risk Stimulants ex Coffee nicotine make you more alert and energetic ex Ma Huang serious health problemsBP
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