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2-Cells of the Nervous System.docx

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Roxane Itier Itier

PSYCH 261 STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF NEURONS JAN 11, 2013 Cells of the Nervous System NEURONS Sensory Neurons  Specialized neurons that detect changes in the environment and transmit info to CNS Motor Neurons  Neurons located in CNS that control muscles contraction or gland secretion Interneuron  Neurons located in the CNS CNS = central neverous system PARTS Soma: cell body containing nucleus Dendrite: branched treelike structure attached to soma, receives info from other neurons Synapse: junction between neurons Axon: long structure conveys info 3 types of Neurons caterogizied based on shape Multipolar Neuron: one axon, many dendrites attached to soma Electrochemical communication  Electrical signal within the neuron  Chemical signal between neurons Cells internal structure Nucleus: Chromosomes contain DNA Mitochondria: manufacture energy, major source of energy used by cell in body. Extract energy (ATP) from nutrients Golgi Apparatus: produces lysosomes fulled with enzyems to destroy waste Supporting Cells – neuroglia  Glue between the cell, holds neurons together, provides nutrition, source of energy, move neurons to avoid neural message contamination Astrocytes  “star” attached to different neurons like a net and provide structural support  Provide neurons with nutrients (break down blood glucose into lactate [metabolized fasster than glucose] and store glycogene)  Creates reserves of glycogen (energy)  Regulate chemical compositon Oligodendrocytes  Create segments of myelin sheath  Having myelin intact is required for proper function of brain  Fatty covering of axons (aids efficient transmission of electrical signal along the axon)  Gaps between segments are Nodes of Ranvier Oligodendrocytes – in CNS: myelinate multiple axons Schwann cell – PNS PSYCH 261 STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF NEURONS JAN 11, 2013 Blood-brain barrier  A selectively permeable barrier between the CNS and circulatory system – property of the walls of the capillaries  Help regulate flow of nutrient rich fluid into brain  Protection of the cell so they don’t die  Preve
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