STRUCTURE OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM
Anterior/Rostral = Front
Posterior/Caudal (tail) = Back or towards a tail
Dorsal = Top
Ventral = Bottom
Lateral = Toward the Side
Medial = Toward the Middle
Ipsilateral = Same Side
Contralateral = Opposite Side
Coronal, Cross Section or Frontal Section (hint: remember a crown)
o Transverse section at right angles to the neuraxis.
o Section made through the brain parallel to the ground.
o Section parallel to neuraxis and perpendicular to the ground.
o Midsagittal Plane – sagittal section through corpus callosum.
The brain does not touch the skull because of cerebral spinal fluid (the brain is floating because of this brain)
Dura Mater – ‘tough mother’, outermost layer.
Arachnoid Membrane – middle layer. Right below the Dura mater. Pudding of the brain after the helmet (Dura Mater)
o Subarachnoid Space – space between arachnoid membrane and pia mater filled with CSF.
Pia Mater – “Soft mother”. Final layer adheres to brain surface.
Ventricles – a set of holes within the brain filled with CSF; also provide a structural support within the brain
o Lateral Ventricles – largest ventricles which extends to the side and connected to the third
o Third Ventricles - is located at the midline th the brain
o Cerebral Aqueduct – connects the third to the 4 ventricle; like a long tube
o Fourth Ventricle – located at the base of the brain
Choroid Plexus – manufactures/ composes the CSF; included within the all the ventricles
A build-up of fluid in your brain; a pressure build up within the brain
Disorder associated with ventricles
Causing the brain to be pushed up to the edge
The fluid can’t be absorbed by the blood that’s why the head grows too big
CURE: Valve to regulate pressure; Tube inserted to the lateral ventricle is the cure which causes the pressure to be
DEVELOPMENT OF THE CNS
Neural Tube – origin of the CNS.
Ventricular Zone – inner lining of cells in the neural tube. Progenitor Cells – cells in ventricular zone that develop into brain cells; the stem cells