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ch 261 - CHAPTER 3 PART 1

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University of Waterloo
Deltcho Valtchanov

STRUCTURE OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM DIRECTIONS  Anterior/Rostral = Front  Posterior/Caudal (tail) = Back or towards a tail  Dorsal = Top  Ventral = Bottom  Lateral = Toward the Side  Medial = Toward the Middle  Ipsilateral = Same Side  Contralateral = Opposite Side  Coronal, Cross Section or Frontal Section (hint: remember a crown) o Transverse section at right angles to the neuraxis.  Horizontal Section o Section made through the brain parallel to the ground.  Sagittal Section o Section parallel to neuraxis and perpendicular to the ground. o Midsagittal Plane – sagittal section through corpus callosum.  The brain does not touch the skull because of cerebral spinal fluid (the brain is floating because of this brain) MENINGES  Dura Mater – ‘tough mother’, outermost layer.  Arachnoid Membrane – middle layer. Right below the Dura mater. Pudding of the brain after the helmet (Dura Mater) web-like o Subarachnoid Space – space between arachnoid membrane and pia mater filled with CSF.  Pia Mater – “Soft mother”. Final layer adheres to brain surface. VENTRICLES  Ventricles – a set of holes within the brain filled with CSF; also provide a structural support within the brain o Lateral Ventricles – largest ventricles which extends to the side and connected to the third o Third Ventricles - is located at the midline th the brain o Cerebral Aqueduct – connects the third to the 4 ventricle; like a long tube o Fourth Ventricle – located at the base of the brain  Choroid Plexus – manufactures/ composes the CSF; included within the all the ventricles HYDROCEPHALUS  A build-up of fluid in your brain; a pressure build up within the brain  Disorder associated with ventricles  Causing the brain to be pushed up to the edge  The fluid can’t be absorbed by the blood that’s why the head grows too big  CURE: Valve to regulate pressure; Tube inserted to the lateral ventricle is the cure which causes the pressure to be regulated DEVELOPMENT OF THE CNS  Neural Tube – origin of the CNS.  Ventricular Zone – inner lining of cells in the neural tube.  Progenitor Cells – cells in ventricular zone that develop into brain cells; the stem cells
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