Midterm #1 Review: Modules 1-4, 6-8, 13-16 Since a lot of the midterm material was not covered in the lectures, this is a document of all the key points that are from the textbook that you should know for the miderm as well as the final exam. more than 1

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Published on 16 Oct 2011
School
University of Waterloo
Department
Psychology
Course
PSYCH101
Professor
Textbook Notes Psychology: 9th Edition in Modules Sept. 23/10
Module 1
Wundt first psychological laboratory
Structuralism Titchener (Wundt’s student)
-discover the structure of the mind through introspection: reporting elements of experience
Functionalism James
-how our mental and behavioural processes function (thinking was developed because it as
adaptive for survival)
Behaviourism Watson and Skinner
-an objective science (observe people’s behaviours as they respond to different things)
Humanistic psychology rather than early childhood, emphasized the importance of current
environmental influences on our growth (how we need love and acceptance)
Cognitive neuroscience study of brain activity linked with mental activity
Psychology science of behaviour and mental processes
Biopsychosocial approach considers the influences of biological, psychological, and social-cultural
factors in analysis
Module 2
Hindsight bias tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that we would have foreseen it
-known as the “I-knew-it-all-along phenomenon
-common sense more easily describes what has happened than what will happen
Critical thinking examining assumptions, discerning hidden values, evaluating evidence
Culture enduring behaviours, ideas, attitudes, and traditions shared by a group of people
Module 3
Theory explains through an integrated set of principles that organizes observations and predicts
behaviours or events
Hypothesis a testable prediction, often implied by theory
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Textbook Notes Psychology: 9th Edition in Modules Sept. 23/10
Module 4
Sensory neurons → brain/spinal cord (interneurons) → motor neurons
-dendrites listen (receive info), axons speak (sends message to other neurons or muscles/glands)
-myelin sheath insulates axons and helps speed their impulses
-multiple sclerosis (MS) may result if the myelin sheath degenerates
-communication to muscles slows, with eventual loss of muscle control
Action potential a neural impulse; a brief electrical charge that travels down an axon
-resting potential positive outside/negative inside state (of axons)
-all-or none-response a strong stimulus (ex. A slap in the face rather than a tap) can trigger more
neurons to fire and to fire more often, but it doesn’t affect the action potential’s strength or speed
Synapse meeting point/junction between neurons
Neurotransmitters chemical messengers that cross the synaptic gaps between neurons
-when flooded with opiate drugs (ex. heroin), the brain may stop producing its own natural opiates
Central nervous system (CNS) brain and spinal cord
Peripheral nervous system (PNS) sensory/motor neurons that connect the CNS to the rest of the body
-has 2 components: somatic (enables voluntary control of our skeletal muscles) and autonomic
(controls our glands and the muscles of our internal organs ex. Heartbeat, digestion, etc.)
-autonomic is composed of sympathetic nervous system and parasympathetic N.S.
-SNS (arouses and expends energy); Para. NS (calms the body, conserving energy)
-neurons are the nervous system’s building blocks
Nerves bundled axons that form “cables” connecting CNS with muscles, glands, and sense organs
Module 6
Plasticity brain’s ability to change (especially during childhood) after damage
-severed neurons usually do not regenerate (but some neural tissue can reorganize after damage)
Roger Sperry the mind and the brain is a “holistic system”
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Textbook Notes Psychology: 9th Edition in Modules Sept. 23/10
Module 7
Consciousness our awareness of ourselves and our environment
“The mind is what the brain does.” ~Marvin Minsky
Dual processing principle that information is often simultaneously processed on separate conscience
and unconscious track
Selective attention the focusing of conscious awareness on a particular stimulus
Inatttentional blindness failing to see visible objects when our attention is directed elsewhere
Change blindness failing to notice changes in the environment
Pop-out when stimuli are distinct, it draws our attention (ex. 1 smiling person in a frowning crowd)
Module 8
Melatonin sleep-inducing hormone
-artificial light delays sleep (we may adopt something closer to a 25-hour day rather than 24-hour)
Sleep periodic, natural, reversible loss of consciousness (unlike unconsciousness from a coma)
helps us recuperate (restore and repair brain tissue, muscles, etc.)
restores and rebuilds our memories of the day’s experiences
feeds creative thinking (dreams can inspire, sleep can boost our ability to think and learn)
plays a role in the growth process
Hallucinations false sensory experiences without sensory/visual stimulus (during stage 1 of sleep)
-REM sleep is also called paradoxical sleep the body is internally aroused but externally calm
Insomnia reoccurring problems in falling or staying asleep
-“quick fixes” such as sleeping pills and alcohol may aggravate the problem
Narcolepsy sleep disorder characterized by uncontrollable sleep attacks (actual brain disease)
Sleep apnea sleep disorder characterized by temporary cessations of breathing during sleep
Night terrors sleep disorder characterized by high arousal and an appearance of being terrified
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Document Summary

Discover the structure of the mind through introspection: reporting elements of experience. How our mental and behavioural processes function (thinking was developed because it as adaptive for survival) An objective science (observe people"s behaviours as they respond to different things) Humanistic psychology rather than early childhood, emphasized the importance of current environmental influences on our growth (how we need love and acceptance) Cognitive neuroscience study of brain activity linked with mental activity. Psychology science of behaviour and mental processes. Biopsychosocial approach considers the influences of biological, psychological, and social-cultural factors in analysis. Hindsight bias tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that we would have foreseen it. Common sense more easily describes what has happened than what will happen. Critical thinking examining assumptions, discerning hidden values, evaluating evidence. Culture enduring behaviours, ideas, attitudes, and traditions shared by a group of people. Theory explains through an integrated set of principles that organizes observations and predicts behaviours or events.

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