PSYCH101 Lecture Notes - Lecture 5: Statistic, Statistical Inference, Confounding

9 views7 pages
1 Aug 2016
Department
Course
Professor
PSYCH 101 – Week Three Notes
What is the general anatomy of a research article?
-Abstract - Summary of hypotheses, methods, and results.
-Introduction - Outlines research question; reviews past research and theory;
introduces formal hypotheses.
-Methods: Describes the participants, procedure and materials used.*
-Results: Describes what was found; tables & graphs; statistics.*
-Discussion - Are results consistent or inconsistent with hypotheses?
Compare with past research and suggest practical applications.
-References
Why is it useful?
oEducates you on how to be a good consumer of science  You’re able
to evaluate the information and sort out what is true and what isn’t
What is a psychological construct?
-Psychological Construct – An abstract psychological concept (Ex.
Aggression, intelligence, attractiveness, helping)
What is an operational definition?
-Operational Definition – A construct defined in terms of how it is to be
measured (Ex. # of times child hits bobo doll with toy hammer, I.Q. score, # of
dates with opposite sex, rate)
How can we distinguish between independent, dependent, and confounding
variables?
-Independent Variable (IV) - The “cause” variable.
oNaturally occurring in a correlational study.
oManipulated in an experiment.
-Dependent Variable (DV) - The “effect” variable; depends on the
independent variable.
oMeasured by the investigator.
-Confounding Variable - Variable closely associated with the independent
variable (alternative “cause”) although external to person or situation
oMakes it difficult to infer causation
oVariable that is the true cause of the effect but that is not being
analyzed
oEx. Saying Hannibal makes viewers aggressive, but what if aggressive
people just like to watch it?
oSound Blast Paradigm:
Correlation found between longer and louder blasts of white
noise and higher levels of aggression
But other factors could have caused aggression – race, gender,
exposure, environment, e.t.c.
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-2 of the document.
Unlock all 7 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in
How are these variables used/tested in experiments?
-Investigate the effect of the IV on the DV.
-Experimenter manipulates the IV and then observes what happens to the DV.
-Random Assignment of participants to one of two conditions.
-Equal amount of participants and equal opportunity
What do correlational studies investigate?
-Investigate the relationship between two variables.
-Studying naturally occurring groups (no random assignment).
-Relationship between violent media and aggressive behaviour
What are the 3 criteria necessary to establish a cause & effect relationship?
1. Temporal Precedence – Cause must precede effect.
2. Co-Variation (Correlation) – Cause and effect must occur together.
3. Elimination of Alternative (Confounding) Explanations
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-2 of the document.
Unlock all 7 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in

Get access

Grade+
$10 USD/m
Billed $120 USD annually
Homework Help
Class Notes
Textbook Notes
40 Verified Answers
Study Guides
1 Booster Class
Class+
$8 USD/m
Billed $96 USD annually
Homework Help
Class Notes
Textbook Notes
30 Verified Answers
Study Guides
1 Booster Class