Psych 261 Chapter 7 Psych 261 Physiological Psychology Kalat: Biological Psychology 10th Edition Chapter 7

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Published on 16 Oct 2011
School
University of Waterloo
Department
Psychology
Course
PSYCH261
Psych 261 Chapter 7
The Other Sensory Systems
-humans have spec. sensory specializations eg. sense of taste: bitterness, for poison
Module 7.1
Audition
-various sense systems have specializations, but also commonality b/w systems
Sound and the Ear
-auditory systems well adapted to detect/interpret useful info
Physical and Psychological Dimensions of sound
-sound wave: periodic compression of air, water, other media
-amplitude: aka: intensity, Loudness; determined by vertical extent of sound wave
-frequency: Hz (compression/sec); pitch: aspect of perception; ^ frequency -> ^pitch
-avg able to hear 15hz-20,000Hz; kids can hear higher frequency
Structure of the ear
-outer ear: pinna -> auditory canal->tympanic membrane (eardrum) in middle ear
-t.m. transmit vibrations to 3 bones (malleus, incus, & stapes); vibrate->oval window
->set fluid in cochlea in motion->displace hair cells (auditory receptors)
-hair excite cells of auditory nerve
Pitch Perception
-gives ability to differentiate sounds (via frequency)
Frequency Theory and Place Theory
-Frequency: basilar membrane vibrates in sync w/ sound -> action potentials @ same frequency
-place theory: basilar membrane has spec. area w/ spec. frequency; activates hair cells @ only 1 place
-Combo: frequency theory for low-frequency sound: place theory for high frequency
-volley principle: auditory nerve as a whole creates volleys of impulses for <4000hz
-people vary in pitch sensitivity; amusia: tone deaf: impaired detection of frequency changes
-absolute pitch: hear & identify a note; either high accuracy or not; early & extensive training needed
The Auditory Cortex
-info from auditory system ->subcortical areas->midbrain->enable each hemisphere of forebrain
-gets most of input from opposite ear; -> primary auditory cortex in superior temporal cortex
-very similar to visual cortex; eg. helps detect motion (direction of sound, movement)
-A1(primary auditory cortex): good for audio-imagery; auditory system: needs experience
-damage to A1->deficit in recognizing speech, music; can still hear simple sounds
-auditory cortex: gives tonotopic map (of sound); thus cells in A1 have preferred tone high-low
-cells outside area A1: respond to changes in sound, auditory ‘objects”: machinery noise, music etc.
Hearing loss
-conductive deafness: middle ear can’t transmit sound waves properly to cochlea
-caused by diseas, infections etc. usu. temporary; if persists: solve w/ surgery, hearing aids
-nerve deafness: aka inner-ear deafness); damage to cochlea, hair cells, auditory nerve
-may hear some but not all frequencies; -> tinnitus: ringing in the ear
Sound Localization
-direction of sound via comparing response of both ears;
- eg. diff intensity b/w ears-> sound shadow(louder in closer ear)
-eg. diff time of arrival: hear in closer ear first
-eg. phase diff: sound waves have peaks 360 deg apart; hearing @ diff phase -> location (soft sounds)
-deafness in one ear -> infer loud sounds come from intact ear side; soft from deaf side
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Document Summary

Humans have spec. sensory specializations eg. sense of taste: bitterness, for poison. Various sense systems have specializations, but also commonality b/w systems. Auditory systems well adapted to detect/interpret useful info. Sound wave: periodic compression of air, water, other media. Amplitude: aka: intensity, loudness; determined by vertical extent of sound wave. Frequency: hz (compression/sec); pitch: aspect of perception; ^ frequency -> ^pitch. Avg able to hear 15hz-20,000hz; kids can hear higher frequency. Outer ear: pinna -> auditory canal->tympanic membrane (eardrum) in middle ear. T. m. transmit vibrations to 3 bones (malleus, incus, & stapes); vibrate->oval window. >set fluid in cochlea in motion->displace hair cells (auditory receptors) Frequency: basilar membrane vibrates in sync w/ sound -> action potentials @ same frequency. Place theory: basilar membrane has spec. area w/ spec. frequency; activates hair cells @ only 1 place. Combo: frequency theory for low-frequency sound: place theory for high frequency. Volley principle: auditory nerve as a whole creates volleys of impulses for <4000hz.

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