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Lecture 6

PSYCH352 Lecture Notes - Lecture 6: Cheq Wong Language, Facial Feedback Hypothesis, Ilongot Language

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Igor Grossmann

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Week 6: Emotions
Ilongot People (Bugkalot)
- Live in the hills of North Luzon in the Philippines
- 50 000 (based on the number of language speakers)
- Both parents participate in mother-
roles boys not concerns with
achievement or defaming girls
- Men equally involved in household
- Women have the right to speak
their mind in public limited
stratification and sexual inequality
- Real intimacy between husband
and wife
- Men (but less so women) travel to
distant places Ilongot places great
value on adventure, travel, and
knowledge of foreign places
- Head-hunting among men, but not
women raids of different bertan
Ritual Duals of Ilongot Youth

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What is an Emotion?
- Several perspectives have influenced how researchers view and define emotions
James-Lange Theory
- Emotions are our physiological responses to stimuli
- Responses are products of autonomic nervous system
- No physiological responses = no emotions
Central Nervous System Theories
- Cannon-Bard
o Bechterev emotional expression is not always controllable, hence must
be independent of cortex
o Cannon & Bard thalamic region as a coordinating center for emotional
- Papez-Maclean
o Christfried Jakob viscero-emotional mechanism
o Not thalamus, but limbic system (hippocampus, amygdala, septum)
Two-Factor Theory
- Schachter-Single Two-Factor Theory of Emotions
o Emotions are our interpretations of our physiological responses
o Interpretation is often not important usually the cause of physiological
responses is clear
But sometimes, the cause isn’t clear this yields evidence for the
two-factory theory

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Universality vs. Cultural Variability of Emotions
- James-Lange Theory of Emotions
o Focuses on physiology
o Predicts that emotions should be universal due to physiological
similarities of all humans
- Two-Factor Theory of Emotions
o Focuses on interpretation
o Predicts that emotions should vary across cultures because different
cultural experiences may lead us to have different interpretations of
physiological responses
- Sub-cortical theories are in-between
Universal Facial Expressions
Charles Dawin
- One of the first empirical cross-cultural emotion researchers
- The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals
- Emotional expression has evolutionary meaning
Assessing Universality The Face
- Facial expressions are often reflexive
o Adults make approximately the same expressions as infants do (even
infants who are born blind)
- Darwin noted that other primates’ facial expressions paralleled those of humans
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