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Lecture

RS110 Lecture Notes - Islamic Philosophy, Córdoba, Andalusia, Abbasid Caliphate


Department
Religious Studies
Course Code
RS110
Professor
Peter Frick

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RS#110##101:#Lecture#17#
Classical'Periods'(66101258)'
Tuesday,#November#23,#2010#
#
< Following#the#period#of#the#caliphate,#the#classical#period#of#Islam#begins#with#the#Umayyad#
Dynasty#in#661#and#lasted#to#1258#when#the#Mongols#destroyed#Baghdad#
< Those#regions#that#were#under#the#control#of#Muslims#were#called#the#Dar#al<Islam,#“abode#
of#Islam”#and#those#that#were#not#the#unbelievers#were#called#Dar#al<Halab#
#
Umayyad&Dynasty&(661.750)#
< Mu’awiya,#the#successor#to#the#assassinated#Ali,#became#the#next#caliph#and#moved#the#
centre#to#Damascus#in#Syria##
< Umayyad#family#was#responsible#for#the#spread#of#Islam#as#fat#as#Spain#and#by#732#in#France#
< Islamic#art#and#architecture#was#on#the#constant#increase.#A#notable#achievement#is#the#
Dome#of#the#Rock#built#in#691#
#
Abbasid&Dynasty&(750.1250)&
< The#Abbasid#rulers#overcame#the#Umayyad#Dynasty#
< Moved#the#capital#from#Damascus#to#Baghdad#
< Abbasid#rulers#were#wealthy,#luxurious,#powerful,#enjoyed#the#good#life#with#slaves,#women,#
wine,#travel#etc.##
< Religiously,#however,#the#ideals#of#the#Quran#were#lost#more#and#more##
< Emphasis#on#scholarship#
< A#great#library#was#built#in#Baghdad#
< Important#was#the#translation#of#Syrian#and#Greek#philosophical#works#those#of#Plato,#
Aristotle#etc.#into#the#new#lingua#franca,#Arabic#
< Intellectual#centers#were#also#established#in#Cordoba,#Spain#and#Cairo,#Egypt##
< This#intellectual#development#acquainted#Islam#with#the#philosophical#and#religious#
traditions#of#the#West#and#gave#the#impetus#for#Islamic#scholars#to#develop#Islamic#
philosophy##
1. The#political#integration#began#in#912#when#the#Umayyad#ruler#proclaimed#himself#caliph#of#
the#Islamic#ummah.#Of#the#three#caliphs,#Abbasid#ruler#became#the#weakest#one.#People#
turned#back#to#Umayyad#(the#strong#believers)#
2. The#Turks#moved#into#Mesopotamia#in#the#11th#century#and#took#more#and#more#control#of#
Palestine,#Syria,#and#Baghdad#
< The#rivalry#between#Muslims#and#Christians#also#include#the#time#of#the#Christian#crusades#
o Jerusalem#was#by#the#crusaders#in#1099#but#captured#by#Saladin#in#1187#
3. The#second#wave#of#decline#came#with#the#invasion#of#the#Mongols#beginning#in#the#12th#
century##
< In#1258,#the#Mongols#destroyed#Baghdad#and#left#Muslim#rule#in#disarray#for#about#two#
centuries##
#
The&Kharijites&(7th&century)&
< Had#very#interpretation#of#Islam#law##
< They#believed#that#“no#judjment#but#God’s#judgement”##
< Very#conservative##
#
The&Qadarites&(8th&century)&
< Debated#human#freedom#in#relation#to#divine#predestination##
< Questioned#and#debated#the#idea#of#freedom#and#the#Quran#
< The#espoused#the#view#of#freedom;#however#the#orthodox#view#that#developed#in#Islamic#
teaching#was#the#opposite##
#
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