RS110 Lecture Notes - Islamic Philosophy, Córdoba, Andalusia, Abbasid Caliphate

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Published on 16 Oct 2011
School
University of Waterloo
Department
Religious Studies
Course
RS110
Professor
RS#110##101:#Lecture#17#
Classical'Periods'(66101258)'
Tuesday,#November#23,#2010#
#
< Following#the#period#of#the#caliphate,#the#classical#period#of#Islam#begins#with#the#Umayyad#
Dynasty#in#661#and#lasted#to#1258#when#the#Mongols#destroyed#Baghdad#
< Those#regions#that#were#under#the#control#of#Muslims#were#called#the#Dar#al<Islam,#“abode#
of#Islam”#and#those#that#were#not#the#unbelievers#were#called#Dar#al<Halab#
#
Umayyad&Dynasty&(661.750)#
< Mu’awiya,#the#successor#to#the#assassinated#Ali,#became#the#next#caliph#and#moved#the#
centre#to#Damascus#in#Syria##
< Umayyad#family#was#responsible#for#the#spread#of#Islam#as#fat#as#Spain#and#by#732#in#France#
< Islamic#art#and#architecture#was#on#the#constant#increase.#A#notable#achievement#is#the#
Dome#of#the#Rock#built#in#691#
#
Abbasid&Dynasty&(750.1250)&
< The#Abbasid#rulers#overcame#the#Umayyad#Dynasty#
< Moved#the#capital#from#Damascus#to#Baghdad#
< Abbasid#rulers#were#wealthy,#luxurious,#powerful,#enjoyed#the#good#life#with#slaves,#women,#
wine,#travel#etc.##
< Religiously,#however,#the#ideals#of#the#Quran#were#lost#more#and#more##
< Emphasis#on#scholarship#
< A#great#library#was#built#in#Baghdad#
< Important#was#the#translation#of#Syrian#and#Greek#philosophical#works#those#of#Plato,#
Aristotle#etc.#into#the#new#lingua#franca,#Arabic#
< Intellectual#centers#were#also#established#in#Cordoba,#Spain#and#Cairo,#Egypt##
< This#intellectual#development#acquainted#Islam#with#the#philosophical#and#religious#
traditions#of#the#West#and#gave#the#impetus#for#Islamic#scholars#to#develop#Islamic#
philosophy##
1. The#political#integration#began#in#912#when#the#Umayyad#ruler#proclaimed#himself#caliph#of#
the#Islamic#ummah.#Of#the#three#caliphs,#Abbasid#ruler#became#the#weakest#one.#People#
turned#back#to#Umayyad#(the#strong#believers)#
2. The#Turks#moved#into#Mesopotamia#in#the#11th#century#and#took#more#and#more#control#of#
Palestine,#Syria,#and#Baghdad#
< The#rivalry#between#Muslims#and#Christians#also#include#the#time#of#the#Christian#crusades#
o Jerusalem#was#by#the#crusaders#in#1099#but#captured#by#Saladin#in#1187#
3. The#second#wave#of#decline#came#with#the#invasion#of#the#Mongols#beginning#in#the#12th#
century##
< In#1258,#the#Mongols#destroyed#Baghdad#and#left#Muslim#rule#in#disarray#for#about#two#
centuries##
#
The&Kharijites&(7th&century)&
< Had#very#interpretation#of#Islam#law##
< They#believed#that#“no#judjment#but#God’s#judgement”##
< Very#conservative##
#
The&Qadarites&(8th&century)&
< Debated#human#freedom#in#relation#to#divine#predestination##
< Questioned#and#debated#the#idea#of#freedom#and#the#Quran#
< The#espoused#the#view#of#freedom;#however#the#orthodox#view#that#developed#in#Islamic#
teaching#was#the#opposite##
#
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Document Summary

Following the period of the caliphate, the classical period of islam begins with the umayyad. Dynasty in 661 and lasted to 1258 when the mongols destroyed baghdad. Mu"awiya, the successor to the assassinated ali, became the next caliph and moved the centre to damascus in syria. Umayyad family was responsible for the spread of islam as fat as spain and by 732 in france. Islamic art and architecture was on the constant increase. A notable achievement is the. Dome of the rock built in 691. The abbasid rulers overcame the umayyad dynasty. Moved the capital from damascus to baghdad. Abbasid rulers were wealthy, luxurious, powerful, enjoyed the good life with slaves, women, wine, travel etc. Religiously, however, the ideals of the quran were lost more and more. A great library was built in baghdad. Important was the translation of syrian and greek philosophical works those of plato, Aristotle etc. into the new lingua franca, arabic.