Religious fundamentalism is an ideology that follows religious texts literally and
believes that religion and that state should not be separate. They are very similar to
conservatism in a sense that their aim is to preserve tradition. The ideology is against
secularism, pluralism, and enlightenment. Instead, they promote theocracy and
submission to religion, and believe that the scriptures are never wrong and cannot be
questioned. The current rise of this ideology also comes from the reaction against
modernism, westernization, and relativism.
Muslim Brotherhood – promotes shari’a law (when the law follows religious writings)
and is against westernization, colonialism, capitalism and communism. Their main goal is
to have society return to the ‘true’ Islam.
Shi’ism – believes that Ali should be the successor of Muhammad. Ayatollah Khomeini
is an example of Shi’ism. He was elected in after he promised freedom for his people