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Module 6.pdf

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University of Waterloo
SOC 222
Allison Chenier

6 February-15-13 10:46 AM 6.1: Social disorganization Theory - Rule breaking is dysfunctional ○ Society needs to be reorganized to prevent dysfunction • 4 Basic Assumptions 1. Delinquency is mainly caused by social factors 2. Societal Institutions are in a state of disarray 3. Under conditions of unstable social factors juveniles are unable to resist delinquency 4. This disarray is most evident within lower class - When you have an infusion of people that increases cultural diversity and physical deteriorationof the neighbourhood - Social disorganization refers to a breakdown in the structure of the communityin terms of collective norms - resulting in crime and deviance ○ Can't stop these changes nor the problems associated with it ○ "sick" parts of society • Park & Burgess 1925 - saw the city as a "living laboratory"and broke it into areas each with different characteristics: - Concentric Zone Model ○ Zone 1 = Loop  The city's centre; houses retail and light manufacturing ○ Zone 2 = Zone in Transition  Surrounds the city centre  Recent immigrants, abandoned buildings, housing that is deteriorating, factories  Seen as being in transition; Moving from residential to commercial/industrial ○ Zone 3 = Working Class Zone  Type of homes without driveways but lanes that run behind the homes ○ Zone 4 = Residential Zone  Middle class; single family homes;yard, driveways and garages ○ Zone 5 = CommuterZone  Suburbs - PATTERN: ○ Those in the inner zones moveoutward as their situation gets better ○ those closest to the core are the MOST impacted by change ○ Most important zone/primaryarea for juvenile delinquency = ZONE 2  High levels of unemployment,single parents, high number of minorities,high levels of mobility, a varietyof cultural groups which cause a confusion about social norms • All these contribute to delinquency flourishing • Two Key Assumptions 1. Rapid industrialization, urbanization, and immigrationsleads to a breakdown in community- based social control 2. Ecological stability: rates of delinquency vary across the city but are stable over time across concentric zones regardless of who lives there • Shaw & McKay 1942 - were looking to see if there were communityfactors that influenced rates of juvenile delinquency - Use structural indicators of disorganization: found these 3 to be the mostinfluential although they do not directly cause delinquency but rather they limit the ability to use informal social control and allows for higher rates of delinquency and crime ○ Juvenile delinquency is most commonlya result of a breakdown ininformal social controls (family, schools, church, neighbourhood etc.) which results in formal control being required to control delinquency 1. Ethnic heterogeneity 1. Ethnic heterogeneity - Greater heterogeneity= greater diversity of cultures & norms; confusion about culture & norms 2. Residential mobility - Higher mobility= less likely to establish networks and communityrelations 3. Low economicstatus - These in combinationwith low economicstatus (3) individuals experience high levels of social isolation, weak social networks, low social involvement • **"This is very much an anomic form of organic solidarity as explained by Durkheim"** • These do not directly cause delinquency but they limit the ability to use informal social control which allow for higher rates of delinquency ○ Higher (1) - greater diveristy of culture and values ○ Higher (2) - less likely to establish networksand community relations • Cultural Transmission - Tradition of delinquency develops and is transmitted from one generation to another ○ Is reflected in similar rates of delinquency in the same zones over time - Highest delinquency rates are in ZONE 2 - industrial, immigrant, non-white, low % of home ownership, ○ Not due to ethnicity • But rather the position of the group in terms of their economicstatus and values • Delinquency is a socially learned behaviour that is passed on through cultural transmission in socially disorganized areas - Delinquency rates lessen as you moveoutward in the zones (zone 3 & 4) • Primary Findings: - Rates of delinquency are lower as you move away from the inner city ○ Because of cultural transmission • Absence of a commonculture or collective sense of communityin addition to socially disorganized communities ○ The breakdown of effective informal social control (family, peers, church, school) necessitating formal social control (policing) • Loss of collective efficacy - Collectivelydecide to self-regulate and increase informal controls - without this = delinquency • Policy Implications - Most crime is committedby normal people reacting to their environmentsthus programs that help the entire communityshould help by combating cultural transmission - One way to lower youth crime is by developing programs that help combat cultural transmission - programs that assist the entire community • Sampson & Groves(1989) - Argument is: Structural community characteristics affect social organization especially primary group controls - Developeda causal model of social disorganization showing communitystructures (economic status) influencing things like social organizations (such as friendship networks) ○ Found that community characterized by sparse friendship networks, unsupervised teenaged peer groups, low community participation had disproportionatelyhigh levels of delinquency • Ethnic Heterogeneity - Is this what causes juvenile delinquency still today? ○ Might not be that simple but could instead be a matterof defended neighbourhoods • Where a neighbourhood encourages delinquent behaviour to protect the neighbourhood from other ethic or racial intruders - Found in relation to violent crime & gang activities 6.2: Durkheim's Theory of Anomie - Argue that social structures within an environmentcan encourage and foster juvenile delinquency delinquency - Anomie = people who adopt the goals of society but lack the opportunity to attain them will seek alternatives (such as crime) ○ Is the difference between societal conditions and individual opportunities in society • When there are no opportunities for legitimate work for attaining values & goals of society you are then left to find alternate routes to these goals and values = criminal behaviour • Ability to achieve goals valued by societies can be class dependent - Strain Theory = strain develops from a variety of sources and it is this strain that leads to criminal behaviour if there is not adequate coping mechanisms • Emile Durkheim - Focus is on societal factors that integrate and regulate individuals in groups - A state of anomie = a societal crisis - Emphasizes the normality of crime = an integral part of healthy societies ○ Crime brings together upright consciousness/acollective conscience- identifies a shared idea of proper behaviours - Crime = functional & dysfunctional ○ Functional = it calls out for community sanctions & strengthens the communitiesshared ideas of morals, what is right/wrong, and community identity; punishment is highly ritualized get together ○ Dysfunctional = when it is so wide spread it destabilizes moral order within a society • Reflects an underlying weakness in moral order (a precursor for anomie) • Without doing anything the communitycould develop into a non-functional state without norms - As societygrows, the commonset of rules changes and groups change = expectationschange • Mechanical Solidarity "Undifferentiated Societies" - Often associated with agricultural/rural cultures (primitivesocieties) ○ Characterized by: • Small, cohesivesociety where people do similar work and have the same values & norms • Greater degree of self-sufficiency
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