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Lecture November 8+10 - Trojan Saga & Iliad.odt

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University of British Columbia
Classical Studies
CLST 105
Ronald Kroeker

Trojan Saga and the Iliad 1. Judgement of Paris 1. Eris – To the fairest 1. Wedding of parents ofAchilles 2. Eris is the greek word for strife 3. Eris had not been invited to the wedding, but attended anyway 4. She threw a golden apple into the group, with 'to the fairest' inscribed on it 5. Aphrodite,Athena, and Hera all claimed the apple belonged to them 6. Zeus decides that Paris will judge who the apple belongs to 2. Paris (Alexander) 1. Trojan prince 2. Had been exposed as a child 3. There was a prophecy that Paris would be an ember who would set fire to the city of Troy 4. Suckled by a she-bear, so he survived 5. A shepherd found and raised him 6. Hermes leads the three goddesses to Paris 7. Hera offered the rule ofAsia if she was chosen 8. Athena offered making him an unbeatable general if she was chosen 9. Aphrodite offered him the most beautiful woman in the world if she was chosen 10. This woman was Helen, married to the king of Sparta 11. Paris choseAphrodite 3. Helen 1. Birth 1. Born to Leda, wife of king Tyndareus of Sparta 2. Zeus turned himself into a swan to seduce Leda, since she wouldn't submit to him 3. Leda produced two eggs 4. One egg has Clyemnestra and Castor in it, the other had Helen and Polydeuces 5. Castor becomes a great horse tamer 6. Polydeuces becomes a great boxer 7. Polydeuces is immortal, but Castor is not and dies 8. Polydeuces does not want to live without Castor 9. Zeus brings Castor back but Polydeuces has to live every other day in Hades 2. Marriage and Seduction 1. Acontest for her hand was held when she came of age 2. The suitors all agreed that when one was chosen to be her husband, the others would protect him 3. Meneleaus was chosen 4. They have a daughter, Hermione 5. Paris visits Meneleaus, then seduces Helen when her husband is away 6. Paris takes Helen with him when he leaves 7. Adelegation is sent to reclaim Helen, but Paris refuses to give her up 8. Meneleaus calls on the oaths that were sworn, and the war begins 9. Alternate version by Stesichorus says Helen never made it to Troy, but was left in Egypt 2. Leaders in The War 1. Trojans 1. Priam 1. King of Troy 2. Noble 3. He had fifty sons and many daughters 4. Nineteen of these sons were with his main wife, Hecuba 5. His sons die in the war, especially at the hand ofAchilles 2. Hector 1. Greatest Trojan champion 2. WhenAchilles withdraws from the battle, Hector is the greatest warrior on the battlefield 3. Arrogant 4. Some argue that he is the real hero, because he is defending the city whileAchilles breaks the rules of war out of anger 5. Hecttor's brother says to as the women of the city to make an offering toAthena, otherwise they stand no chance 6. Hector stops to see his wife and son on his way to the city 7. He is told they are on the wall, watching the battle 8. She asks him not to return to the war 9. He reaches for his son, his son cries due to Hectors helmet 10. Hector hopes that his son will be a better man than he is 3. Aeneas 1. Second Trojan, just below Hector 2. Is the only one willing to stand up againstAchilles 3. Achilles is about to killAeneas, but Poseidon intervenes 4. Aeneas is called the forefather of Rome 4. Lycians 1. Allies of the Trojans, not Trojans themselves 2. Glaucus 1. Glaucus and Diomedes discover they are ancestral guest friends, so they cannot fight 2. Glaucus' armour was gold, Diomedes had bronze armour 3. Exchanges armour with Diomedes 3. Sarpedon 1. Son of Zeus 2. Zeus wants to save Sarpedon, but Hera tells him if he does all the other gods will want to save their children 3. He lets Sarpedon dies 4. Apollo carries the body of Sarpedon away from the battlefield 2. Greeks 1. Agamemnon 1. High King of the Greeks 2. Unopposable 3. Somewhat incompetent 4. Athena will not allow Achilles to attackAgamemnon, whenAchilles is insulted 5. When a friend ofAchilles dies,Achilles holds funeral games in his honour 6. Agamemnon says he will enter the spear-throwing contest,Achilles declares him the victor without the contest running 2. Menelaus 1. Brother ofAgamemnon 2. At one point, Paris challenges Menelaus to a one-on-one fight 3. Menelaus easily overpowers Paris, and drags him to the side to kill him 4. Aphrodite saves Paris, taking
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