To analyze how demographic patterns changed in industrializing societies. To consider the factors that drove changes. A process characterized first by a decline in death rates (leading to a rapid growth in population) and later a fall in birth rates (at which point population growth slows). Variations at national, regional and local scales. Later 19th century help with death rate. 41. 7 years (in 1581-85) to a low of 27. 8 years (in 1561-65). 24 and 28 years (for males), and 26 and 30 years (for females) By the mid-19th century, survival rates for both men and women reached over 40 years for most western european countries. Population growth tends to outstrip growth of food production. Supply a limit would be met. Populations must suffer periodic mortality increases in the absence of virtuous preventative checks because of declining living standards. The dynamics of a primarily agrarian society, in terms of : The prevailing food production system, including the crops grown.