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Lecture 18

SOC101Y1 Lecture Notes - Lecture 18: Census Geographic Units Of Canada, Demographic Transition, Food First

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Christian O.Caron

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Sociology Lecture: February 24
Demography: The Study of Population
Slow population growth in Canada yet worldwide a significant increase
The world’s population of 7.4 billion in 2016 increases by 80 million a year
By 2050, there will be over 9 billion people
The subfield of sociology that examines population size composition and distribution
Demography is important because the nature of population affects all aspects of
social life
Increases or decreases in population have a powerful impact on the social, economic
and political structures of societies
Demographers define population as a group of people who live in a specified
geographic area
Changes in populations occur as a result of three processes:
Fertility (births)
Mortality (deaths)
Migrations (movement from one place to another)
Population Issues and Urban Growth: The Demographic Transition
For much of human history, population growth was fairly stable given societies
experienced consistently high birth rates and death rates
Large families were common given the economic value of children and high infant/
childhood morality rates
Human life span was much shorter than today
Beginning in the 18th century, demographic patterns began to change dramatically
with breakthroughs in hygiene, public health, nutrition and medical knowledge
While death rates plunged, birth rates initially remained high but eventually fell with
increasing industrialization, modernization, and urbanization
Crucial factor in reduction was the offloading of family responsibilities to the state
Change from high to low birth and death rates is known as the demographic
From the 1960s onward, wealthier nations were faced with fertility rates below with
the replacement level — when births and deaths balance and the population remains
The incidence of death in a population
Crude death rate: the number of deaths per 1000 people in a population
Mortality rates have declined dramatically in most countries in the past 200 years
In many low and middle-income nations, mortality rates are 2-3 times higher than in
high-income nations
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