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Lecture 4

Week 4 Reading HIST 103.docx

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HIST 103
Jeffrey Byrne

Week 4 Reading HIST 103 Chapter 2: The Peace of Paris and the New International Order The Paris Peace Conference - Began in Paris in January 1919 - Purposes: 1) To repair the political and economic fabric of half of the world 2) To ensure against any recurrence of the organized violence - Reality of peace treaties: whatever decisions that were made simply reflect the great powers’ interested in protecting what they claimed to be theirs. This is mostly apparent from how they redistribute the territory, resources, and populations of the regions previously controlled by the defeated powers.  The powers that join the peace treaty are usually powers that managed to win in their wars - The outcome: ended without a positive outcome  The French were mostly inferior of the Germans. Their 2 unnegotiable terms: 1) to remove forever the menace of German military aggression in Europe  To obtain financial assistance for the restoration of the territory in northeastern France The Political Realities of Diplomacy - Slogans associated to Wilson: the war to end all wars, and the war to make the world safe for democracy - Contradicting action. Council of Four conducted its deliberations in the utmost secrecy at first without taking minutes. Press were denied access. The elected legislative representatives of the four great powers had even less power. Ignored public opinion in his own country. Chose men who either shared his own views on world affairs or lacked the authority to speak for the new Republican majority in the Senate WEEK 4 KEYWORDS - Conference/Treaty of Versailles (or Paris)  Council of Four  Before WWI  The worst treaty ever  Each nation demonstrated their own greed - Woodrow Wilson’s Fourteen Points  Career highlights: 1) attend the Paris conference in person, 2) staying in Europe for 6 months  Wilson’s belief on what cause war: 1) the practice of secret diplomacy, whereby political leaders surreptitiously negotiated military alliances and diplomatic engagements to further their own nation’s ambitions, 2) the tendency of politically dominant nationality groups to oppress the ethnic minorities under their control, 3) the ability of privileged elites to monopolize political power at the expense of the population at large  Wilson’s belief if the causes are removed: 1) Would abolish forever the cause of war 2) Free and open discussion of international issues would bring to an end to secret diplomacy among imperialistically inclined national leaders 3) The map of Europe was to be redrawn according to the principle of national self- determination, liberating the long suppressed ethnic groups whose struggles for independence had caused most of the wars 4) European political institutions would be democratized by removing constraints on the expression of public opinion that had permitted the ruling elites of the Central Powers to wage war  The Fourteen Points (1918) 1) Any negotiation between nations should be done publicly and without secrecy 2) Absolute freedom to navigate around the seas, outside territorial waters 3) Removal of economic barriers 4) Reducing national armaments consistent with domestic safety 5) In determining all such questions of sovereignty the interests of the populations concerned must have equal weight with the equitable claims of the government whose title is to be determined 6) The evacuation of all Russian territory 7) Belgium must be evacuated without any attempt to limit sovereignty 8) All French territory should be freed and the invaded portions restored 9) A readjustment of the frontiers of Italy should be effected along the nations we wish to safeguard 10)The peoples of Austria-Hungary whose place among the nations we wish to safeguarded and assured should be accorded the freest opportunity of autonomous development 11)Rumania, Serbia and Montenegro should be evacuated 12)The Turkish portions of the present Ottoman Empire should be assured a secure sovereignty but the other nationalities which are now under the Turkish rule should be assured an undoubted security of life and an absolutely unmolested opportunity of an autonomous development 13)An independent Polish state should be erected which should include the territories inhabited by Polish  the should receive free access to independence, sea access and all of these should be guaranteed by an internat
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