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HIST 325 (17)

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HIST 325
Jonathan Newell

 What was the national plan for a Canadian West? (1870s-1890s) ◦ Formally: group of tariffs to promote and protect Canadian manufacturing (Eastern provinces) ◦ Broader goal: to create east-west trade relations, a national market, and a transcontinental political-economic union  What was the role and importance of Rupert's Land in national development? ◦ Was the breadbasket of Canada ◦ No technology to extract oil (more expensive to extract oil than its sale price) Partners in development  Why did the HBC become a partner in developing the breadbasket? ◦ HBC converted to retail and real estate ▪ Knew grounds and people ▪ Got lots of cash and land (close to posts-transport points) ▪ 20% of arable (farming) land to develop --> incentives  How important was CPR as a partner in development? ◦ Very important ◦ Received 20 miles of land either way of the railway which they could sell  Why did Canada retain control over prairie lands and natural resources? ◦ Dominion Lands Act 1872 aimed to encourage settlement and natural resource development of Canada's Prairie Provinces ◦ Similar to US homestead scheme ◦ Encouraged mass immigration campaign and attracted domestic settlers ◦ Offered 160 acres free to any man over 18, and any woman who was the head of the household ◦ Conditional upon living on acreage and improving it quickly, eligible to purchase a neighbouring plot ◦ Allowed Bloc settlement (bring whole communities)  Why didn't settlement work (pre-1896)? ◦ US lands more attractive ◦ Recession ◦ HBC and CPR tied up half the arable lands, which were for sale, not free ◦ Free land farms too far from railway points ◦ Available strains of wheat not successful  Some success stories in innovation, after 1896: ◦ Marquis wheat: ▪ Canadian breadbasket owes much to dominion government scientists who developed early-maturing Marquis wheat for semi-arid soils; world- famous for high-quality of grain and flour ▪ Extended cultivatable acreage of land of northerly prairies, parkland areas, and US Canada's international reputation for superior grains and flour Time to Look at Immigration  With all the developments touched upon here, every aspect of national policy, broadly speaking, depended upon successful recruitment of a major pool of immigrants  Why look at immigration ◦ Ramsey Cook writes in The Illustrated History of Canada (p. 379) “The history of the first half of the 20 century in Canada, as in other industrializing countries, is the story of a society learning to live with and to control the forces of change released by economic expansion ◦ Economic growth “was accompanied by social tension and changed relations between cla
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