What was the national plan for a Canadian West? (1870s-1890s)
◦ Formally: group of tariffs to promote and protect Canadian manufacturing
◦ Broader goal: to create east-west trade relations, a national market, and a
transcontinental political-economic union
What was the role and importance of Rupert's Land in national development?
◦ Was the breadbasket of Canada
◦ No technology to extract oil (more expensive to extract oil than its sale price)
Partners in development
Why did the HBC become a partner in developing the breadbasket?
◦ HBC converted to retail and real estate
▪ Knew grounds and people
▪ Got lots of cash and land (close to posts-transport points)
▪ 20% of arable (farming) land to develop --> incentives
How important was CPR as a partner in development?
◦ Very important
◦ Received 20 miles of land either way of the railway which they could sell
Why did Canada retain control over prairie lands and natural resources?
◦ Dominion Lands Act 1872 aimed to encourage settlement and natural resource
development of Canada's Prairie Provinces
◦ Similar to US homestead scheme
◦ Encouraged mass immigration campaign and attracted domestic settlers
◦ Offered 160 acres free to any man over 18, and any woman who was the head
of the household
◦ Conditional upon living on acreage and improving it quickly, eligible to
purchase a neighbouring plot
◦ Allowed Bloc settlement (bring whole communities)
Why didn't settlement work (pre-1896)?
◦ US lands more attractive
◦ HBC and CPR tied up half the arable lands, which were for sale, not free
◦ Free land farms too far from railway points
◦ Available strains of wheat not successful
Some success stories in innovation, after 1896:
◦ Marquis wheat:
▪ Canadian breadbasket owes much to dominion government scientists who
developed early-maturing Marquis wheat for semi-arid soils; world-