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Epistemology P2

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PHIL 101
Christopher Stephens

Nozick’s Tracking Theory: it is a version of JTB intended to rule out lucky guesses; stating that instead of knowing something, it is also possible to track it and notice it. S know that P if and only if (1) P is true (2) S believes that P (3) If P were false, S wouldn’t believe that P (need justification, evidence) (4) If P were true, S would believe that P Ex. An analogy of a thermometer, what makes it reliable? (1) It must read 25 if it is in fact 25 outside (2) What if it’s stuck? We need to test it and change the temperature. Having a reliable brain is like having a reliable thermometer. Objections to Nozick’s Tracking Theory: Premise (3) may be false! Russell’s Clock: if it reads 12:20 but it is not, would you believe it? Yes!  Premise (3) proves false Knowledge vs. Justified Belief: A dismissive reaction towards knowledge skepticism. Fall back on justified beliefs and compare the degree to which some beliefs are more supported by evidence than others. PUN (Principle of Uniformity of Nature): An assumption that nature will act in the future the way it has acted before. It is used to justify inductive reason and science Ex. The sun has risen in the past  it will rise tomorrow. Hume’s Problem of Induction: Deductively Valid! P1: All inductive arguments involve PUN (Principle of Uniformity of Nature) P2: To justify induction, we must justify PUN P3: To justify PUN, we must use either an inductive or deductive argument. P4: We can’t justify PUN deductively because we can’t deduce future claims from past events. Cannot deduce uniformity. P5: We can’t justify PUN inductively (it would be circular*, since all inductive arguments presuppose PUN. We can’t use PUN to justify PUN) P6: Hence, we can’t justify PUN P7: Hence, we can’t justify induction P8: Hence, all of our beliefs based on inductions and generalization are unjustified. When we say we want to justify PUN/induction, we want to justify the predictions and generalizations that induction provides beyond our observations. Max Black’s Rejection: yo
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