Objections to Aquinas
(1) Even if every event has a cause, it doesn’t follow that there has to be a
(2) Even if we grant that each causal chain must have a beginning – an
uncaused cause – does it follow that there is a single uncaused cause that
is the origin of all causal chains? NO. Every even tracing back to one
cause is not the same as on cause causing all events.
Dependent Being: A being whose existence is accounted for by the causal
activity of other things.
Self-Existing Being: A being whose existence is accounted for by its own nature
Defending (Aquinas’ P2) Principle of Sufficient Reason: A Cosmological
P1: Every being is either a dependent being or a self-existent
P2: There exists an independent (self-existent) being or every being is
P3: Not every being can be a dependent being.
C1: Hence, there exists a self-existent being.
C2: Hence, there exists a necessary being (i.e., God).
Why not just accept that sometimes, something’s do not have a reason?
Objecting (Aquinas’ P2) Principle of Sufficient Reason: