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PHIL 102 Lecture Notes - Deductive Reasoning, Lucretius, If And Only If

2 pages55 viewsWinter 2013

Course Code
PHIL 102
Dominic Mc Iver Lopes

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final exam: should take about an hr/hr and half
-all short answer (one sentence)
-ask what you know and to complete arguments
-study for recall, not recognition
-try rewriting notes into less pages-eg. 30 into 20, then 10, then 5, then 1
-look at number of points the question is worth
-value theory
!-example q: what is a theory? an answer to a ‘what is’ question
-theories are often tested by considering counterexamples
!-there are two kinds: an example that fits the criteria but isn’t the same result, or
!getting the result without the criteria
!-eg. theory of romantic love: S loves R iff S values R for their intrinsic humanity
!-counterexample: you love your baby for its intrinsic humanity, but its not
!romantic love
!-counterexample two: do you really have to value someone for their intrinsic
!humanity in order to love them?
-deductive arguments
-abductive arguments: arguments to the best explanation (will have facts then
!-lucretius argument for death: 1. death is nonexistence
!!!! 2. nobody exists prenatally
!!!!! 3.
!!!!! 4. so nonexistence harms nobody
!!!!! 5. so death harms nobody
!-this is a deductive argument
!-what is missing? Prenatal nonexistence harms nobody
form of abductive argument:
1. it’s a fact that _____
2. the best explanation of this fact is _____
3. therefore, _____
eg. Nozicke’s theory of love
1. it’s a fact that it’s irrational to trade up, we love someone for their qualities, etc
2. the best explanation of this fact is romantic love is forming a ‘we’
3. therefore, the we theory
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