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Lecture 10

Psychology 101: Lecture 10/11

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University of British Columbia
PSYC 101
Michael De Souza

Lecture #10/11 - September 26/28, 2012 September-26-12 11:14 AM SLIDE #5 • Glial cells: glue that holds the brain together ○ Support the functions of neurons • Astrocytes: help provide the blueprint for the nervous system ○ Stops recovery of neurons after an injury ○ Stopping the damage is thought to be more important than fix things (correct connections) • Microglia: when something is dead or dying, it cleans it up (prevents further problems) • Schwann cells: speed neuron transmission, fast transfer of information (signal and speed) ○ Found in the peripheral neuro system • Oligodendrocytes: speed neuron transmission, fast transfer of information (signal and speed) ○ Found in the central neural system SLIDE #7 • Sensory neurons are designed to pick up specific sets of information ○ Temperature, odor, touch etc. • Interneurons: integrating information across the senses (visual and audio) • Motor neurons: movement signals, relay of movement commands SLIDE #9 • Cell body is important to create structure, support and protect everything inside • Dendrites: receive incoming information • Axon hillock: puts together all the information, decides whether a signal is transmitting ○ Depends on how stimulated the neuron is SLIDE #11 • Inside the neuron the membrane is more positive outside than inside • Threshold potential: if the threshold is broken information will be sent • Depolarization: more positive than usual, higher than the threshold ○ Sodium is pushed in • Repolarization: membrane potential falls to where it normally is ○ Sodium is pushed out • Hyperpolarization: it is harder to stimulate a neuron than it normally is SLIDE #14 • Electrical signal travels down the axon via saltatory conduction SLIDE #15 • Multiple Sclerosis: disease of the nervous system, particularly the myelin ○ Begins to get attacked and degraded ○ Signals that neurons are trying to send may be degraded too • Difficult to diagnose because the symptoms vary from patient to patient ○ Memory, optic nerve damage (visual), movement (eventually cannot walk) • Thought to be a disease of the immune system, believes the myelin is bad, an invader ○ Immune system targets it and kills it ○ U
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