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Lecture 5

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PSYC 101
Michael Souza

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Lecture 57 Human Nervous SystemTextbook Chapter 3PSYCHOLOGY 101 INTRODUCTION TO COGNITIVE AND Central nervous system CNSBrain and spinal cord integrative and control centres spine is the brains extension into the bodylPeripheral nervous system PNSdliesC Cranial an spinal nervescommunicationn bw NS and restof body Sensory afferent division Motor efferent divisionSomatic and visceral nerve fibers Motor nerve fibers Receptors to CNSCNS to effectors musclesglandsAutonomic nervous systemSomatic nervous systemVisceral motor involuntary Somatic motor voluntary CNS to cardiacsmooth muscglands CNSskeletal musclesParasympathetic division Sympathetic divisionees iduConservs enrgy promote housekeepingfunc during restMoblizes body sys ring activity fightflightAutonomic nervous systemSympathetic dvion Fight orflight stess atiates this and pts other nonnessarysystems oniis rcvuec hold releases cortisol and catecholamines Epinephrine and norepinephrine Parasympathetic division rest or digest reactivates suppressed actionsnActivating the sympathetic ervous system Cortisol stress hormone incr levels can lead to organ damage Catecholamines epinephrine and norepinephrine ep dilates pupil incr HRSomatic division efferent signals control voluntary movement From brain to body via spinal cordMotor neurons control movements attached to muscle fibers act with acetylcholine Black widow venomcauses excessive Ach release Botulismsuppresses Ach release Motor neurons and acetylcholine Achchemical neededcauses musc contraction promotes memory Curare Ach antagonistblocks Ach receptors needed to move or breathSomatosensory dafferent signals Turns touchbased sensory info info into a neural signal for further processing From body to spine to brain Pressure mechanoreceptors Pain nocireceptors A delta fibers C fiber slow throbbing pain hereditary sensory autonomic PSYCHOLOGY 101 INTRODUCTION TO COGNITIVE AND neuropathycantfeelpain Temperature thermoreceptors Proprioception proprioceptorsknowing where your body is in space tells our body our muscle npositioCentral nervous system The brain 3lbs 100 million neurons 10 trillion connections The spinal cord Cervical 7 thoracic 12 lumbar 5 and sacral 5 Scoliosis irregular curvature of the spinal cord sshaped spine affects posture Spina bifida incomplete closure of neural tube exposed spinal cord at birth cause cause paralysisdeath take vits to protect from it Paralysis affects limbs below the injuryo ParaplegicparalysisoflowerhalfofonesbodyQuadriplegic paralysis of all four limbso Higher parts of the body that are damaged more risk that the rest of the body is affectedDermatomes correspond to different sections of the spinal cordWomen low on folic acidhave higher risk of spinal impairmentsBabinski test can show damage to frontal lobe of the brain Reflexes sensory neuroninterneuronspinal cord no need for brain only 3 neurons neededo The brain can controlsuppress them like holding hot thingsBabinski and snouting infant reflexes whose absence could indicate brain damageo o Babinski fans out their toes when you touch them snouting pursed lips when you touch nosenormal to be seen in the age of 1 a quick way to test the integrity of the reflex loop and the brainspine connectionOF BRACLASSES IN CELLSGlia Support cells glue that holds the brain together Astrocytes starlike guide development of neurons provide blueprint for the nervous system support blood brain barrier stop the process of produing new neurons after injury stop the bleeding Microgliascavengerseatdeadandinjuredcells Schwann cells around neurons speed up signals by insulating found in peripheral n system Oligodendrocytes central covers a few neurons at a time also helps w speed of signals found in CNSCancer of the brain someone who has brain cancer never have a neuron cell turned cancer but a glial cell Meningioma glial cells grow uncontrollably are cancerous occurs in space bw brain and skull clear definition of boundaries so easier to remove Astrocytoma astrocyte is cancerous progresses quickly it occurs in the brain fills up the ventricle fluid areasyoucantseethebordersoitshardtoremoveSensory neurons senypesomatosor touch pressure vibration prorioception tmperature pain tailored to capture a specific type of sensory information Visual light auditory sound cochlea hairs vibrations
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