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Chpt. 10 Intelligence.docx

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University of British Columbia
PSYC 102
David Klonsky

Chpt. 10 Intelligence An exercise in:  Scientific thinking  Critical thinking  Theory & measure development Definition (intelligence is our construct):  Ability to comprehend and solve problems  Various cognitive abilities i.e. seeing patterns  Capacity to adapt to a new situation  Learning efficiency  Communication abilities  Memory retention  Social abilities  Ability to memorize, team, and critically think in order to successfully communicate & solve problems across different situations  Capacity to learn & apply knowledge to analyze and succeed in different situations  Mental ability to discover, acquire and retain knowledge and concepts, and to apply them flexibly and effectively to various contexts Measure? Need operational definition-  Mazes- initial; follow-up learn from experience  Simple memory test  Logic-pattern analysis, word problems Validate? Initial test should correlate with GPA Correlate with informant reports of intelligence Research Process 1. Good definition 2. Good measurement 3. Test it  Reliable (consistent)  Valid (accurate)  Uni-or-multi-dimensional Definition The ability to: Learn from experience Solve problems Use our knowledge to adapt to new situations In research studies intelligence is whatever the intelligence test measures What is intelligence? A concept, not a thing Error of reification- error of taking a concept and treating it as concrete, universal, same everywhere Ex. Good car (not one specific car), athleticism Henry H. Giddard (1866-1957) Coined technical terms of lower half of intelligence: moron, imbecile, idiot His views on intelligence evolved greatly over his own life Was particularly interested in measuring intelligence in immigrants into US Believed the intelligence had genetic component, & immigrants would bring in non-intelligent genes into the population creating morons, imbeciles, & idiots Wrote “The Kallikak Family” Charles Spearman (1863-1945) “g”- different intellectual abilities represent a single underlying factor: intelligence Believed that intelligence was one thing- uni-dimensional L.L. Thurstone 7 clusters of primary mental abilities: 1. Verbal comprehension 2. Word fluency 3. Spatial ability 4. Perceptual speed 5. Numerical ability 6. Inductive reasoning 7. Memory Not one single intelligence construct Each of the abilities are different & important Modern Conceptualizations on Intelligence: Howard Gardner 8 types of intelligence:  Verbal skills  Math skills  Spatial skills  Movement skills  Musical skills  Insight about self, intrapersonal  Insight about others, interpersonal Robert Sternberg Talked about 3 kinds of intelligence: 1. Analytical intelligence- assessed by intelligence tests 2. Creative intelligence- adapting to novel situations, generating novel ideas 3. Practical intelligence- required for everyday tasks (e.g. street smarts) Emotional Intelligence- the ability to perceive, understand & use emotions (Peter Salovey)  Perceive emotion- recognize emotions in faces, music & stories  Understand emotion- predict emotions, how they change & blend  Manage emotion- express emotions in different situations  Use emotion- utilize emotions to adapt or be creative  Is it really intelligence? Are we really gaining anything scientific, adds to our skills? Creativity  The ability to produce ideas that are both novel & valuable  Correlates somewhat with intelligence Brain Size and Intelligence  Recent studies indicate correlation of about +0.40  Raw brain size does matter (not in respect to rest of body)-> moderately more intelligent Processing Speed and Intelligence  Faster brains related to smarter brains  Empirically & conceptually part of intelligence  Ex. Jeopardy Assessing Intelligence Intelligence tests- assess an individual’s mental aptitudes and compare them with others using numerical scores The Origins of Intelligence Testing  Alfred Binet- first person to pursue the aim of measuring intelligence  He was particularly interested in
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