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PSYC 302
Kiley J Hamlin

PSYC 302: LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT: ST 1 WORDS Generally they are nouns and are basic level categories THE HOLOPHRASTIC PERIOD They are saying a whole phrase within a single word; communicating desires with single words Overextension: babies are really motivated to communicate; they know that when they see a cat it isn’t a dog but they do not know the word for cat and call it a dog VOCABULARY SPURT Increase in understanding and vocab THE PROBLEM OF REFERENCE: QUINE Quine=philosopher; interested in the problem of translation: when you see someone labeling something how do you know what it is they are labeling? The problem of reference is that when someone points at something and says a word you don’t know it could have anything to do with the object; they could be talking about the color, shape, texture, a specific feature of it, etc CONSTRAINTS ON WORD LEARNING PERCEPTUAL CONSTRAINTS Shape bias: when you hear a label you tend to think it refers to the kind of object it is which is most often seen as a product of its shape You call some random object a random name and then show an infant two objects, one of the same material, the other of the same shape, and infants point the one with the same shape as being the same CATEGORICAL INDUCTION Ex. Non-solids (what is critically important to these is not their shape; so you extend knowledge of this material); something about your knowledge of this category helps you extend knowledge to new words EX. You see a C made of toothpaste you are more likely to acknowledge a H made of toothpaste over a C made of hair PERCEPTUAL CONSTRAINTS Bias to see the whole object Babies refuse to map words onto an action even if it is super salient until they have a word for the object PRAGMATIC CONSTRAINTS Mutual exclusivity: if you have a label for something and you hear a new label you assume it is for another object; one object has only one name SOCIAL PRAGMATIC CONSTRAINTS It is the intentions of the labellers that really matter when figuring out what they are labeling Infants will stop what they are looking at when they hear someone label something, look at the labeller, and then infer what they are looking at is the object they are labelling Pragmatic=any social cue or cue in the situation which helps you figure out what the person is labeling SYNTACTIC CONSTRAINTS: SYNTACTIC BOOTSTRAPPING A sib=an object Some sib=mass nouns; stuff Sibbing=ing makes you think it’s a verb and
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